Zoologische Mededelingen, 83 (July 2009)
Remarks on the genus Chloritis in Sulawesi, Indonesia, with the descriptions of two new species (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Camaenidae)
Wim J.M. Maassen
Keywords: Mollusca; Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Camaenidae; Chloritis; taxonomy; South-east Asia; Indonesia; Sulawesi.
Two new species of the genus Chloritis of the camaenid family are described from Sulawesi, Indonesia, viz. Chloritis vanbruggeni and C. togianensis. Three hitherto unfigured species (C. biomphala, C. balatensis and C. talabensis) are illustrated.
The genus Chloritis is restricted to South-east Asia (from China to India and up to New Guinea) with numerous species having usually small distributional ranges. Some researchers divided the genus Chloritis in a number of rather poorly defined subgenera, or even consider these subgenera as genera. The characters used for these separations are only shell features; unfortunately from only a few species the anatomy is known. In this paper the more conservative systematic classification (only one genus Chloritis) is followed as proposed by Vaught (1989).
The malacofauna of Sulawesi is relatively well known, especially concerning the larger species through the publications by the Swiss cousins P. & F. Sarasin (1899); new records and/or descriptions of new species are summarized in a preliminary checklist of the terrestrial mollusks (Maassen, 1997).
This paper gives an overview of all Chloritis species from Sulawesi and illustrates three so far never figured Chloritis species: C. biomphala (L. Pfeiffer, 1862), C. balatensis (Kobelt, 1896) and C. talabensis (Kobelt, 1896). Finally, two new species are described, which were recently discovered in material presented tot the author for identification.
For shell characters: W, width; H, height. For collections: BMNH = The Natural History Museum (formerly British Museum [Natural History]), London, United Kingdom; JA = J. Abbas, Jakarta, Indonesia; JH = J. Hemmen, Wiesbaden, Germany; MBBJ = Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Cibinong, Java, Indonesia; MD = W.J.M. Maassen, Duivendrecht, The Netherlands (material to be deposited in RMNH); RMNH = Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Leiden, The Netherlands; SNSD = Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany.
Family Camaenidae Pilsbry, 1895
Genus Chloritis Beck, 1837
Chloritis Beck, 1837: 26. Type species Helix ungulina Linnaeus, 1758.
The conchological characters of the species belonging to the genus Chloritis are the more or less compact shells, the biconcave or a hardly elevated spire. The first whorls are quite narrow, rounded, the apical ones with regularly arranged granules or hair pits. Last whorl is widened suddenly, with a more or less open umbilicus. Aperture lunate, peristome reflected, connected in most cases by a thin callus.
Chloritis balatensis (Kobelt, 1896)
Helix (Chloritis) balatensis Kobelt, 1896: 2 (original description, type locality: Balante auf Celebes).
Chloritis balatensis (Kobelt); Dharma, 2005: 228, pl. 89, fig. 29 (Peleng Isl.).
Diagnosis.― Shell large for the genus, brown, without hairs, not completely flat, umbilicated, the ends of the peristome connected with a thin callus. Dimensions: W 40-46 mm.
Remarks.― The species was described after only one specimen (“ein tadellos erhaltenes Stück”), holotype by monotypy SNSD 10199.
Chloritis biomphala (L. Pfeiffer, 1862)
Fig. 2. Syntype of Chloritis biomphala (L. Pfeiffer, 1862), BMNH 198074, actual shell diameter 20 mm.
Helix biomphala L. Pfeiffer, 1862: 272 (original description, type locality: in insula Ceram).
Chloritis biomphala (L. Pfeiffer); P. & F. Sarasin, 1899 : 199, Gorontalo (first record for Sulawesi).
Diagnosis.― Shell of moderate size for the genus, brown, without hairs, completely flat, umbilicated, the ends of the peristome connected with a thin callus. Dimensions: W 17-20 mm.
Remarks.― The species is probably described after more than one specimen (a number is not given in the original description, but in the dimensions 10-11 mm is given for the shell height). The figured specimen (BMNH 198074) therefore represents a syntype. The species is never recorded again.
Chloritis gruneri (L. Pfeiffer, 1845)
Helix gruneri L. Pfeiffer, 1845: 63 (original description, type locality: unknown).
Chloritis gruneri (L. Pfeiffer); Zilch, 1966: 295, pl. 7 fig. 10.
Diagnosis.― Shell large for the genus, brown, without hairs, somewhat elevated spire, umbilicated, the ends of the peristome connected with a strong, white callus bearing a more or less conspicuous tooth. Dimensions: W 34-45 mm.
Remarks.― New record for Sulawesi: Kendari (JA).
Chloritis macrostoma Gude, 1906
Chloritis macrostoma Gude, 1906: 42, pl. 5 figs 7-7b (original description, type locality: Bangaya, off East Celebes).
Diagnosis.― Shell large for the genus, brown, without hairs, completely flat, umbilicated, the ends of the peristome connected with a thin callus. Dimensions: W 37-48 mm.
Remarks.― Recently specimens were seen at websites, only with Banggai Isl. as locality, wrongly identified as C. balatensis!
Chloritis minahassae P. & F. Sarasin, 1899
Chloritis minahassa P. & F. Sarasin, 1899: 199, pl. 25 figs. 250-250b (original description, type locality: Nord Celebes, Gipfel des Vulkans Sudara; Vulkan Lokon; Bone Gebirge).
Diagnosis.― Shell small for the genus, brown, with hairs, with impressed spire, umbilicated, the ends of the peristome connected with a thin callus. Dimensions: W 11-13 mm.
Remarks.― New records are N-Sulawesi: Tangkoko Nature Reserve, moss forest at Sudara Vulcano (MD); E-Shore Lake Tondok, 12.5 km E of Kotamobagu, 00°43.44’N 124°26.40’E (MD).
Chloritis planorbina Haas, 1912
Chloritis planorbina Haas, 1912: 415 (original description, type locality: Roembia, SE Celebes).
Chloritis planorbina Haas; Zilch, 1966: 295, pl. 7 fig. 9.
Diagnosis.― Shell moderately size for the genus, without hairs, brownish corneous, spire somewhat impressed, umbilicated, the ends of the peristome connected by a thin callus. Dimensions: W 19.5-24 mm.
Remarks.― The species is described after two specimens and has not been recorded again.
Chloritis talabensis (Kobelt, 1896)
Helix (Chloritis) talabensis Kobelt, 1896: 2 (original description, type locality: Balante auf Celebes).
Diagnosis.― Shell of moderate size for the genus, brown, with hairs, spire somewhat elevated, umbilicated, the ends of the peristome connected with a thin callus. Dimensions: W 24 mm.
Remarks.― The species was described after only one specimen (“ein schönes Stück”), holotype by monotypy SNSD 10198. The species is since its discovery never recorded again.
Chloritis togianensis spec. nov.
Material examined.― Indonesia, Central Sulawesi, Pulau [Island] Togian, ex coll. J. Hemmen (Wiesbaden) (RMNH 113751/holotype, paratypes JH/2, MD/2, MBBJ/1).
Description.― Shell solid, unicolored light ochre, biconcave, irregularly striated according to some growth lines, with numerous hair pits covering the whole surface. Spire deeply sunken, with 3¾-4½ whorls. Whorls are rounded, first whorls very narrow, the last one very large, and partly embracing the preceding one, distinctly descending in front. The umbilicus is deep, and about 1/8 of the width of the shell. Aperture is crescent, a little oblique, peristome thick and expanded all around and is somewhat reflexed; both ends connected by a quite thin callus.
Dimensions. H 9.5-11.7 mm; W 17.1-19.9 mm; holotype H 9.8 mm; W 18.4 mm.
Derivatio nominis.― The species is named after the type locality, Togian Island, principle island of the Togian Archipelago, lying in the Tomini Bay.
Remarks.― The species may be compared to only a few species showing the same kind of rotating of the penultimate whorl especially, and possessing simultaneously a sunken shell shape. Chloritis bifoveata (Benson, 1856) from West Malaysia is smaller (W 15 mm), and the spire is much deeper; C. unguiculastra (Martens, 1867) is somewhat larger (W 22 mm), is smooth without hair or hair pits, and is more regularly coiled; C. ungulina (Linnaeus, 1758) is much larger (W 44 mm) is smooth without hair or hair pits, has a groove at the base of the penultimate whorl near the umbilicus and the whorls are more flattened, not rounded.
Chloritis vanbruggeni spec. nov.
Material examined.― Indonesia, Central Sulawesi, Pulau [Island] Peleng, Gunung [Mount] Tatarandang, near village at foot of the mountain in low vegetation, leg. J. Abbas (RMNH 113752/holotype, paratypes: JA, BMNH, MBBJ, MD, SNSD.
Description.― Shell is solid, of a light ochre color, biconcave, regularly striated with very fine axial riblets, with numerous periostracal hairs (visible in this well cleaned sample as hair pits), covering the whole surface. Spire deeply sunken, with 3¾-4½ whorls. Whorls are rounded, first whorls very narrow, the last one very large, and embracing the preceding one, distinctly descending in front. The umbilicus is deep, and very small (about 1/20 of the width of the shell) and partly hidden by the expanded columellar side of the peristome. Aperture is crescent, a little oblique, peristome very thick and expanded all around and somewhat reflexed. The both ends are connected by a extremely thick callus, forming a very strong and quite sharp arcuate tooth on the body of the penultimate whorl.
Dimensions. H 10.7-14.0 mm; W 18.2-24.6 mm; holotype H 13.0 mm; W 21.7 mm.
Derivatio nominis.― The species is named in honor of Dr A.C. van Bruggen, well-known malacologist, at the occasion of his 80th birthday and in recognition of his work on the malacology of Indonesia.
Remarks.― So far, this most remarkable species can not be confused with any other Chloritis species because of his peculiar appearance; so far it is the only species with such a strong and sharp arcuate tooth.
I am very grateful to Dr Fred Naggs (BMNH) for providing the picture of a syntype of Chloritis biomphala; Dr Katrin Schniebs (SNSD) for the loan of the types of Chloritis balatensis and C. talabensis; Mr John Abbas for the material of C. vanbruggeni; and Mr Jens Hemmen for the material of C. togianensis. Dr Bram Breure took care of the pictures and commented on an earlier draft of the manuscript. I also would like to thank an anonymous referee for constructive comments on the manuscript.
Edited: A.S.H. Breure
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