Material and methods
Material.— Collections: EIHU – Entomological Institute, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; NHMB – Museum of Natural History, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany; RMNH – National Museum of Natural History Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands; ZIAB – Zoological Institute, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China; ZMUC – Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Methods.— Larvae and pupae of E. festivitatis were collected in leafmines on Hypericum. They were placed with moss in plastic bags or small containers and transported to the laboratory either in Amsterdam or Leiden. When collected in late autumn, they were given a cold treatment in a refrigerator for a few weeks and then reared at room temperature in closed containers. For most samples vouchers of the food plants were kept as herbarium specimens. These were (re‑)identified by Dr Norman Robson (Natural History Museum, London) in November 2007.
Genitalia preparations were embedded in Euparal, following the methods described by van Nieukerken et al. (1990). Because of the tight fusion between aedeagal carina and valvae and vinculum, the aedeagus was usually not dissected out.
Photographs of moths, leafmines and genitalia slides were taken with a Zeiss AxioCam digital camera attached to respectively a Zeiss Stemi SV11 stereo-microscope or a Zeiss Axioskop H, using Carl Zeiss AxioVision software.
Measurements of genitalia were obtained from digital images, using AxioVision, 20 × objective for male genitalia and 10 × or 20 × for females. Capsule length was measured from vinculum to middle of pseuduncus; valva length from tip of posterior process to ventral edge, excluding the sublateral process; aedeagus length was measured along the sclerotized tube, to the tip of ventral process/carina, excluding any protruding vesica parts. Bursa length was measured from cloaca to anterior tip. Forewing length was measured from tip of cilia to attachment on thorax, usually at magnification of 20 ×. Antennal segment counts include scape and pedicel. All measurements based on sample size of at least five specimens are accompanied by mean, standard deviation and sample size in brackets.
Distribution maps were prepared with DMAP 7.0 (Morton, 2000).
Morphological terms follow van Nieukerken et al. (1990). Food plant names were checked with IPNI (2004).