Falco (Lophotes) Reinwardtii Schlegel & Müller, 1841: 37, pl. 5, fig. 1 & 2
Original description.— This name was introduced on page 37 in Temminck's 'Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen, door leden der Natuurkundige commissie in Indië en andere Schrijvers' (Schlegel & Müller, 1841). In their description, Schlegel & Müller listed five specimens: three males collected by C.G.C. Reinwardt during his travel to the Moluccas in 1821 "in de omstreken van Manado op Celebes" (in the vicinity of Manado on Sulawesi), a female collected by P. Diard at Pontianak in Borneo and another female collected by E.A. Forsten in Tondano on Sulawesi. Two of the males were depicted on plate 5: figure 1 an “immature” male with a brown underside and figure 2, according to Schlegel an “adult” male with a grey-barred underside.
Type specimens.— All syntypes are still available in the Leiden bird collection and it was also possible to link the specimens with the birds illustrated on plate 5: RMNH 87172 was depicted in figure 1 and RMNH 87171 in figure 2.
RMNH 87171, Ad. ♂, skin. Loc.: Amboine [= Ambon, Indonesia], 1821. Leg.: C.G.C. Reinwardt.
RMNH 88925, Ad. ♂, skin. Loc.: Amboine [= Ambon, Indonesia], 1821. Leg.: C.G.C. Reinwardt.
RMNH 87172, Ad. ♂, skin. Loc.: Ternate [Indonesia], 1821. Leg.: C.G.C. Reinwardt.
RMNH 87168, Ad. ♀, skin. Loc.: Pontianak, Borneo [Indonesia]. Leg.: P. Diard. Received: 1826.
RMNH 87169, Ad. ♀, skin. Loc.: Tondano, Celebes [= Sulawesi, Indonesia]. Leg.: E.A. Forsten. Received: 1840.
Type locality.— The label data of the specimens collected by Reinwardt do not correspond with the locality as given by Schlegel & Müller in the original description: “in de omstreken van Manado op Celebes” (in the vicinity of Manado, Sulawesi). Handwritten notes on the labels show that there has been doubt about Ambon as collecting locality. However, Stresemann (1913: 306) indicated that Sulawesi and Borneo must also be errors and suggested Ambon as a corrected type locality. The same conclusions were drawn by Rothschild & Hartert (1915: 48). Mees (1982) stated that Reinwardt never visited Sulawesi, but stayed on Ambon between 27 June and 12 August 1821. Thus, RMNH 87171 and 88925 might have been collected in this period.
Taxonomic history.— No less than four taxa are involved in the type series of Falco (Lophotes) Reinwardtii: In 1866, 25 years after the original description, Schlegel separated the birds with rufous-barred underparts from the specimens with grey barring and named them Baza rufa. The type series of this race from the northern Moluccan Islands does also include RMNH 87172, the bird depicted in figure 1 on plate 5 in the original description.
With more material coming from the Moluccas, Schlegel (1873a) then split the darkest and most richly rufous-barred race from Sulawesi and the Sula Islands and described it as Baza celebensis. Within the type series he also listed a type specimen of reinwardtii from Tondano, Sulawesi (RMNH 87169).
In 1876, Brüggemann, while discussing birds from Sulawesi, stated that Schlegel's bird from Borneo could not belong to reinwardtii but should be considered a separate race, which he named borneensis. Brüggemann gave no separate description, but referred to Schlegel (1873a: 135), where under the description of Baza magninostris a single specimen, RMNH 87168, is listed. The name was thereby made available through indication (ICZN, 1999, Art. 12.2.).
As a result the type series of reinwardtii is composed of four different taxa, now distributed between two species: Aviceda jerdoni borneensis (Brüggemann, 1876), A. j. celebensis (Schlegel, 1873), A. subcristata rufa (Schlegel, 1866) and A. s. reinwardtii. (Schlegel & Müller, 1841).
Nomenclatural consequences.— In most of the recent bird standard references (e.g. Stresemann & Amadon, 1979; Thiollay, 1994; Ferguson-Lees & Christie, 2001; Dickinson, 2003) Aviceda subcristata reinwardtii (Schlegel & Müller, 1841) is considered a valid subspecies occurring in the southern Moluccas. The composite nature of the type series of Falco (Lophotes) Reinwardtii under this ongoing usage of the name as a valid subspecies name makes it necessary to designate a lectotype. RMNH 87171 matches the description, was depicted on a plate linked to the original description and can be identified as Aviceda subcristata reinwardtii under current taxonomy. In order to provide stability in the usage of all four well-accepted names, RMNH 87171 is therefore selected as lectotype of Falco (Lophotes) Reinwardtii.
In accordance with Art. 74.7 of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999) we hereby designate as lectotype of Falco (Lophotes) Reinwardtii Schlegel & Müller, 1841: RMNH 87171, Ad. ♂, skin. Loc.: Amboine [= Ambon, Indonesia], 1821. Leg.: C.G.C. Reinwardt.
Following Art. 74.1.3 (ICZN, 1999) all other specimens of the type series consequently become paralectotypes:
RMNH 88925, Ad. ♂, skin. Loc.: Amboine [= Ambon, Indonesia], 1821. Leg.: C.G.C. Reinwardt. [= Aviceda subcristata reinwardtii].
RMNH 87172, Ad. ♂, skin. Loc.: Ternate [Indonesia], 1821. Leg.: C.G.C. Reinwardt. [= syntype of Baza rufa Schlegel, 1866 = Aviceda subcristata rufa].
RMNH 87168, Ad. ♀, skin. Loc.: Pontianak, Borneo [Indonesia]. Leg.: P. Diard. Received: 1826. [= holotype of Baza borneensis Brüggemann, 1876 = Aviceda jerdoni borneensis].
RMNH 87169, Ad. ♀, skin. Loc.: Tondano, Celebes [Indonesia]. Leg.: E.A. Forsten. Received: 1840. [= syntype of Baza celebensis Schlegel, 1873 = Aviceda jerdoni celebensis].