Zoologische Mededelingen, 87 (March 2013)M.L. Christoffersen; J.E. De Assis: A systematic monograph of the Recent Pentastomida, with a compilation of their host

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Host/parasite checklist of Recent Pentastomida

Species were first searched with Google (2012), being then listed from Wikipedia (2012), and finally checked by specific taxon sites or checklists indicated below for each group; taxa within double quotes are not confirmed as valid from these sources. Several of these unconfirmed host names were introduced by Diesing (1836, 1850), their problematic status already having been noted by Heymons (1935). Full synonyms of host species may be obtained in the databases cited for each group. Herein we indicate only previous names indicated in the pentastomid literature.

INSECTA (Species were validated, in addition to the general references indicated above, with ITIS, 2012).


Microctecnochira bilobata (Boheman, 1855) [= Coelosis bilobata Boheman, 1855]. Parasite: Raillietiella gigliolii.

NEOPTERA: BLATTARIA (cochroaches): BLABERIDAE (giant cochroaches):

Blaberus discoidalis Serville, 1839 (discoid cockroach). Parasite: Raillietiella gehyrae (nymphs in fat bodies of intermediate host; infective third stage free in coelom).

NEOPTERA: BLATTARIA: BLATTIDAE (household cochroaches):

Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (American cockroach). Parasites: Raillietiella amphiboluri; R. hebitihamata (larvae in fat bodies, infective stages free in coelom of intermediate host); R. gigliolii.

Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) (Australian cockroach). Parasite: Raillietiella hebitihamata.

PISCES (Species were validated, in addition to the general references indicated above, with Eschmeyer, 1998, Reis et al., 2003, and FishBase, 2012).

ELASMOBRANCHII (sharks and rays): ORECTOLOBIFORMES (carpet sharks): HEMISCYLLIDAE (bamboo sharks):

Chiloscyllium indicum (Gmelin, 1789 [in Linnaeus & Gmelin, 1788]) [= Hemiscyllium indicum (Gmelin [in Linnaeus & Gmelin, 1788]) (slender bambooshark). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni.

ELASMOBRANCHII: RAJIFORMES (skates and rays): POTAMOTRIGONIDAE (river stingrays):

Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841) [= Raia motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841; Taeniura motoro Müller & Henle, 1841] (South American freshwater stingray; "raia de fogo"; "raia-maça"; "boro"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis (larvae); Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

ACTINOPTERYGII (ray-finned fish): AMIFORMES (bowfins): AMIIDAE (bowfins):

Amia calva Linnaeus, 1766 (bowfin). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae encysted in mesenteries).


Alestes macrophthalmus Günther, 1867 (torpedo robber, an alestid fish). Parasites: Leiperia cincinnalis (larvae); L. gracilis (larva in peritoneum of cloaca).


Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816) [= Hydrocyon brevidens Cuvier, 1819; Salminus brevidens (Cuvier, 1819); Salmo auratus Natterer, 1836] ("dourado", a freshwater fish). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larvae encysted in intestinal wall).


Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi, 1853). (Mexican tetra). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.


Tetragonopterus argentatus (Baird & Girard, 1854); ("sardinha matupiri"; "sauá"). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum.


Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 [= Salmo tamuco Kner, 1860] (a characoid freshwater fish: biara; "chafalote"; "chambira-challua"; "dentudo"; "peixe-cachorro"; "peixe cadela"; "saranha"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis; Sebekia oxycephalum (larva).


Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) [= Macrodon trahira (Agassiz, 1829)] (a freshwater fish: trahira; "aimara"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis (larvae in body cavity); Sebekia oxycephalum; Subtriquetra subtriquetra (larvae).


Pristobrycon aureus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) [= Salmo erythrophthalmus Kner, 1860] (a salmonid fish). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larva).

Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858 [= Serrasalmus natteri (Kner, 1858)] (red piranha). Parasites: pentastomids (in muscles, coelomic cavity, and air bladder); Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).; S. sp.

Pygocentrus piraya (Cuvier, 1819) [= "Serrasalmo piranha"] (true piranha; San Francisco piranha; "cariba"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis (larva); Sebekia oxycephalum (larva); S. sp.; Subtriquetra subtriquetra (larvae in swimming bladder).

ACTINOPTERYGII: CLUPEIFORMES (clupeiformes herrings): CLUPEIDAE (herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens):

"Clupea tobarana Natterer, 1836" (a marine fish). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis; Sebekia oxycephalum (larva). Remarks: Heymons (1935) was also unable to identify this fish name. It does not appear on FishBase (2012).


Pellona castelnaeana Valenciennes, 1847 (Amazon pellona; "apapá"; "sardinha branca"; "sardinata"). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis. Remarks: Heymons (1935) synonymyzed this species with Ilisha flavipennis (Vallenciennes, 1849), but both species are now considered valid.

ACTINOPTERYGII: CYPRINODONTIFORMIS (rivulines, killifishes, and levebearers): CENTRARCHIDAE (sunfishes):

Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur, 1829) [= Pomoxis sparoides (Lacepède, 1801)] (black crappie). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae encysted in mesenteries).


Fundulus grandis Baird & Girard, 1853 (Gulf killfish, a fundulid). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (intermediate host).


Phalloceros harpagos Lucinda, 2008 ("barrigudinho"). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (nymphs in mesenteries).

Poecilia Bloch & Schneider, 1801 sp. (a freshwater fish: guppy; lebistes). Parasite: Subtriquetra subtriquetra (developmental stages).

Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur, 1821) (sailfinmolly). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (nymphs in viscera).

Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 (guppy). Parasites: Sebekia minor (larvae); S. oxycephalum (nymphs in viscera).


Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853) [= Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853)] (mosquitofish). Parasites: Sebekia mississippiensis (intermediate host); S. oxycephalum (infective larvae).

Gambusia holbroocki (Girard, 1859) [= Gambusia affinis holbroocki (Girard, 1859)] (eastern mosquito fish). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae encysted in mesenteries).

Priapichthys annectens (Regan, 1907) (a freshwater fish). Parasite: Subtriquetra subtriquetra (larvae introduced experimentally into host).

Xiphophorus helleri Heckel, 1848 (green swordtail, a freshwater fish). Parasite: Sebekia mississippiensis (intermediate host).

Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther, 1866) (southern platyfish). Parasites: Sebekia oxycephalum (nymphs in viscera); Subtriquetra subtriquetra (developmental stages).


Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Sternarchus albifrons (Linnaeus, 1766)] (black ghost knife fish; "ituí cavalo"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis (larva); Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).


Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Gymnotus electricus Linnaeus, 1766] (electric eel; "poraquê"). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis; Sebekia oxycephalum (larva).

Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 [= Carapus brachyurus Bloch, 1786] (banded knifefish; "carapó"; "mailura"; "tira-faca"). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.


Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) (arapaima; pirarucu; a freshwater fish). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larvae).


Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Peters, 1852) (bulldog, a freshwater fish). Parasite: Sebekia minor (encysted infective larvae).


Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Eupomotis gibbosus Linnaeus, 1758; Eupomotis microlophus (Günther, 1859)] (common sunfish; pumpkinseed; stump-knocker). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae encysted in mesenteries).

Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier, 1829) [= Chaenobryttus gulosus (Cuvier, 1829)] (warmouth bass). Parasites: Raillietiella sp. (larvae in tissues); Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae encysted in mesenteries).

Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 (bluegill). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (intermediary host).

Lepomis megalotis (Rafinesque, 1820) [= Xenotis megalotis marginatus (Holbrook, 1855)] (Florida long-eared sunfish). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae encysted in mesenteries).

Lepomis punctatus (Valenciennes, 1831) [= Sclerotis punctatus punctatus (Valenciennes, 1831)] (black-spotted sunfish). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae encysted in mesenteries).


Astronotus crassipinnis (Heckel, 1840) [= Acara crassipinnis Heckel, 1840] ("acaruaçu"; "oscar"; "apaiari"). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.


Aequidens pulcher (Gill, 1858) [= Aequidens pulchra (Gill, 1858)] (blue acara). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (intermediate host).

Aequidens tetramerus (Heckel, 1840) [= Acara cascudo Linnaeus, 1758] ("acará-cascudo"; saddle cichlid; an Amazon fish). Parasite: Subtriquetra subtriquetra (nymph in intestine).

Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther, 1867) [= Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (Günther, 1867)] (convict). Parasite: Subtriquetra subtriquetra (larvae and nymphs in swimm bladder).

Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther, 1862) (Mayan cichlid fish). Parasite: Subtriquetra subtriquetra.

Parachromis montaguensis (Günther, 1867) [= Cichlasoma montaguense (Günther, 1867)] (false yellow jacket cichlid). Parasite: Sebekia sp. (in mesenteries).

Paraneetroplus synspillus (Hubbs, 1935) [= Cichlasoma synspilum Hubbs, 1935] (pastel cichlid; quetzel cichlid; redhead cichlid; firehead cichlid). Parasite: Subtriquetra subtriquetra (in mesenteries).


Cichla monoculus Spix & Agassiz, 1831 [= Lobotes monoculus Spix & Agassiz, 1831] (a marine fish). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larvae).


Bathybates ferox Boulenger, 1898. Parasite: Leiperia cincinnalis (infective larvae).

Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Mossambique bream; "tilápia"). Parasites: Alofia sp. (larvae in swim bladder); Leiperia cincinnalis (experimentally infected with primary larvae); Sebekia minor (larvae); Subtriquetra rileyi (infective larvae in swim bladder).

Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Lates niloticus Linnaeus, 1758; Tilapia nilotica (Linnaeus, 1758)] (mango fish; Nile perch; Nile tilapia; nilotica; a freshwater latid fish). Parasite: Leiperia cincinnalis (nymphs in muscle).

Sargochromis giardi (Pellegrin, 1903) [= Pelamatochromis robustus Gilchrist & Thompson, 1917] (ligros-happy; pink happy). Parasite: Leiperia cincinnalis (nymphs in body cavity).

Serranochromis meridianus Jubb, 1967 (lowveld largemouth). Parasite: Leiperia cincinnalis (as intermediary host).

Tilapia Smith, 1840 sp. Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (infective larvae); Subtriquetra subtriquetra (developmental stages).

Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1897) [= Tilapia rendalli swierstrae Gilchrist & Thompson, 1917] (redbreasted Maori wrasse; redbreast tilapia). Parasites: Sebekia minor (infective larvae); Subtriquetra rileyi (infective larvae).

Tilapia zilli (Gervais, 1848) (redbelly tilapia). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (nymphs in viscera).


Gobioides broussonnetii Lacepède, 1800 (violet goby). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (juvenile).

Gobioides peruanus (Steindachner, 1880) (Peruvian eelgoby). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (nymphs).


Lates microlepis Boulenger, 1898 (forktail latid, a freshwater fish). Parasite: Leiperia cincinnalis (larval forms).


Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Atlantic croaker). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (intermediary host).


Salmo Natterer, 1836 sp. Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 (Atlantic salmon). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).


Sciades herzbergii (Bloch, 1794) [= Bagrus mesops Valenciennes, 1840; Bagrus pemecus Vallenciennes, 1840] (pemecou sea catfish; gillbacker; mud cuirass; "bagre branco"; "bagre guriba"; bagre juba"; "gurijuba"; "jahu Amazonense"). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.


Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (North African catfish; walking catfish). Parasite: Sebekia okavangoensis (larvae in body cavity).


Chrysichthys brachynema Boulenger, 1900 (kibonde; planet catfish). Parasite: Leiperia cincinnalis (larval forms).

Chrysichthys mabusi Boulenger, 1905 (bemba). Parasites: Leiperia cincinnalis (larvae); L. gracilis (larvae in peritoneum of cloaca).

ACTINOPTERYGII: SILURIFORMES: ICTALURIDAE (North American freshwater catfishes):

Ameiurus natalis (LeSueur, 1819) (yellow bullhead fish). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Ictalurus meridionalis (Günther, 1864) (blue catfish). Parasite: Pentastomida sp. (nymphs).


Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein, 1819) [= Silurus piraaiba (Goeldi, 1898); "Silurus piratinga"] (kumakuma; "bagre amarelo"; "bagre branco"; "bandeirinha"; "cadete"; "chumbadinha"; "dourado"; "filhote"; "guirí"; "piramutaba"; a freshwater catfish). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larva). Remarks: Using piraiba as a vernacular name, Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (Lichtenstein, 1819) appears in FishBase (2012), with Piratinga piraaiba Goeldi, 1898 (lau-lau, "bagre-branco", "bagre-pobre") as a synonym. It appears that Brachyplatystoma filamentosum may have been the species intended.

Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840) [= Silurus gerupoca Natterer, 1858] (porthole shovelnose catfish; toa; "gerupoca"; "jurupoca"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis (larvae); Sebekia sp.

Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) [= Pirarara bicolor Spix & Agassiz, 1829] (redtailed catfish; "lorai"; "parabé-prê"; "pirarara"; "varara"). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larvae).

Pimelodus sp. Lacépède, 1803. Parasite: Sebekia sp.

Pimelodus ornatus Kner, 1858 [= Silurus megacephalus (Natterer, 1858)] (ornate pimelodus; "bagre-de-água-doce"; "mandi"; "mandi-guaru"). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larvae).

Pinirampus sp. Bleeker, 1858 (a fish). Parasite: Sebekia sp.

Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) [= Pimelodus pinirampu Spix & Agassiz, 1829] (flatwiskered catfish; "piranabu"). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larvae).

Pseudoplatystoma Bleeker, 1862 sp. (a fish). Parasites: Sebekia sp.; Leiperia gracilis (larvae; in muscles); Sebekia oxycephalum.

Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) (spotted sorubim). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum.

Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Silurus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1766] (barred-sorubun; tigerfish; "cachara"; "pintado"; "surubim-cachara"). Parasites: Pentastomida sp.; Leiperia gracilis (larvae); Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (Valenciennes, 1840) [= Platystoma tigrinum Valenciennes, 1840] (tiger sorubin; "cachara-tigre"; "caparari"; "pirambucu"; "surubim". Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.

Zungaro jahu (Ihering, 1898) [= Silurus jahu Ihering, 1898] ("jaú", a migratory catfish). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larvae).

Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt, 1821) [= Paulicea luetkeni (Steindacker, 1871)] (gilded catfish). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.


Silurus sp. Parasites: Leiperia gracilis (larvae); Sebekia oxycephalum (larva).

"Silurus dourado". Parasites: Sebekia mississippiensis (larvae); S. oxycephalum (larva). Remarks: Several genera and species appear on FishBase (2012) when dourado is entered as a vernacular name, but no species name is associated with Silurus.

Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758 (Wels catfish). Parasite: Linguatula serrata.

"Silurus mamaiacu". Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larva). Not listed in FishBase (2012).

"Silurus pintado Natterer (in Diesing), 1836". Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larva). Remarks: No distinguishing characters mentioned for this taxon name (Eschmeyer, 1998: 2343). Heymons (1935: 168) was unable to place this fish species. Not listed in FishBase (2012).

"Silurus (Pimelodus) vituga (Natterer, in Diesing, 1836)" (apimelodid fish). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis. Remarks: No distinguishing characters mentioned for this taxon name (Eschmeyer, 1998: 1773). Heymons (1935: 168) was unable to place this fish species. Not listed in FishBase (2012).


Vandellia cirrhosa Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1846 (candiru). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larva).


Mastacembelus Scoopoli (ex Gronow), 1777 sp. (a freshwater fish). Parasite: Leiperia cincinnalis (juvenile in digestive tract of intermediate host).


Synbranchus Bloch, 1795 sp. (a freshwater fish). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.

Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 (marbled swamp eel; "mussum"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis; Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Amphibia; (Species were validated, in addition to the general sites indicated above, with the AmphibiaWeb DataBase, 2012).


Amietophrynus mauritanicus (Schlegel, 1841) [= Bufo mauritanicus Schlegel, 1841] (berber toad; Mauritian toad; Moroccan toad; morrish toad; pantherine toad). Parasites: Raillietiella (larvae); R. sp.

Amietophrynus regularis (Reuss, 1833) [= Bufo regularis Reuss, 1833] (common African toad; common square-marked toad; Egyptian toad; Reuss's toad). Parasite: Raillietiella sp. (definitive host).

Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) [= Bufo melanostictum (Schneider, 1799); Bufo melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)] (Asian blackhead toad; Asian black-spotted toad; Asian eyebrow-ridge toad; black-lipped toad; black-spined toad; house toad; kneeled-nosed toad; common Indian toad; reticulated toad; southeast Asian broad-skulled toad; spectacled toad). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (immature forms in muscles; nymph in body cavity); Raillietiella indica (immature forms in lung); R. rileyi (in lung).

Peltophryne lemur Cope, 1869 [= Bufo lemur (Cope, 1869)] (lowland Caribbean toad; Puerto Rican crested toad). Parasite: Raillietiella bufonis (adults in lungs).

Rhaebo blombergi (Myers & Funkhouser, 1951) [= Bufo blombergi Myers & Funkhouser, 1951] (Blomberg's toad; Colombia toad; "sapo gigante de Blomberg"). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (agua road; invasive cane toad; giant toad; marine toad; shoulder-knot frog). Parasites: Raillietiella hebitihamata; R. indica (in lungs); R. spp.

Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) [= Bufo paracnemis Lutz, 1925] (bull-frog; cururu toad; Schneider's toad). Parasite: Raillietiella freitasi.


Platymantis pelewensis Peters, 1867 (Palau wrinkled ground frog). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (nymphs in intestine).


Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Lesson, 1834) [= Rana hexadactyla (Lesson, 1834)] (green pond frog; Indian bullfrog; Indian five-fingered frog; Indian green frog; six-toed frog). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni.

Fejervarya cancrivora (Gravenhorst, 1829) [= Rana cancrivora Gravenhorst, 1829] (brackish frog; crab-eating frog; Gulf coast frog; Java wart frog; mangrove frog; marsh frog; rice-field frog). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (beneath skin); Raillietiella gehyrae.

Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829) [= Rana limnocharis Gravenhorst, 1829] (Boie's wart frog; grass frog; Indian cricket frog; Indian rice frog; marsh frog; paddyfield frog; paddy frog; rice field frog; terrestrial frog; white-lined frog). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (juvenile in intermediate host).

Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin, 1802) [= Rana tigrina Merrem, 1820] (common frog; golden frog; Indian bullfrog; Indus Valley bullfrog; Peter's frog; tiger frog). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (immature forms in muscles).


Litoria Tschudi, 1838 sp. [= Nyctimystes Stejneger, 1916 sp.] (a tree frog). Parasite: Raillietiella sp. (nymph).

Litoria caerulea (White, 1790) (common green tree frog). Parasite: Raillietiella indica.


Micryletta inornata (Boulenger, 1890) [= Microhyla inornata Boulanger, 1890] (deli little pygmy frog; deli paddy frog; false ornate narrow-mouthed frog; inornate froglet). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (larvae).


Crinia remota (Tyler & Parker, 1974) [= Ranidella remota Tyler & Parker, 1974] (paper bark froglet; remote froglet; torrid froglet). Parasite: Waddycephalus sp. (nymphs in post-orbital skin).


Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) [= Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802] (American bullfrog; bloody nouns; common bullfrog; eastern bullfrog; edible bullfrog; jug-o'-rum). Parasites: Kiricephalus coarctatus (primary larva in intermediate host).

Hylarana supragrisea (Menzies, 1987) [= Sylvirana supragrisea Menzies, 1987] (Papua Gray frog). Parasite: Kiricephalus sp. (nymphs in small intestine).

Reptilia; (Species were validated, in addition the the general sites indicated above, with Reptile DataBase, 2012).

"Tropidonotus Boie, 1826 sp.". Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larva). Remarks: Not listed in Reptile Database (2012).

CROCODYLIA (crocodiles, alligators): ALLIGATORIDAE:

Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin, 1802) [= Alligator lucius Cuvier, 1807] (American alligator; gator). Parasites: Alofia platycephalum; Sebekia mississippiensis (adults and nymphs, experimental nymphal infection of paratenic hosts); S. oxycephala (larvae in lungs and tracheae; adults in lungs, causing sebekiosis).

Caiman crocodilus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Caiman sclerops (Schneider, 1801); Champsa sclerops (Schneider, 1801; Caiman crocodilus [as Crocodylus sclerops] (South American crocodile; common caiman; spectacled caiman). Parasites: Alofia platycephalum; Leiperia gracilis (larvae in tracheae; adults in heart and aorta); Sebekia microhamus (female); S. oxycephalum (adults in lung); S. trinitatis (nymphae and adults); Subtriquetra subtriquetra (larvae and adults in mouth cavity, nasal fossae, and throat).

Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1892) (broad-snouted caiman). Parasites: Alofia platycephalum; Sebekia oxycephalum.

Caiman yacare (Daudin, 1802) (jacaré-do-pantanal). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (in lung, stomach and intestine).

Melanosuchus niger (Spix, 1825) (black caiman; "crocodilo"; "jacaré-açu"; "jacaré assu"; "jacaré guaçu"; "jacaré negro"; "jacaré una"). Parasites: Sebekia oxycephalum (adults); Subtriquetra subtriquetra (adults in nasal fossae).


Crocodylus Laurenti, 1768 sp. Parasites: Alofia ginae; A. merki; Sebekia cesarii (adults in lungs).

Crocodylus acutus (G. Cuvier, 1807) [= Crocodylus americanus Laurenti, 1768] (American crocodyye; sharped-nosed crocodile). Parasites: Diesingia megastomum (in lungs); Leiperia gracilis (adults in heart and aorta); Sebekia divestei (nymphs and adults in lungs); S. oxycephalum (in lungs and bronchial cavity).

Crocodylus johnsoni Krefft, 1825 (Australian freshwater crocodyle; Johnston's river crocodyle). Parasites: Leiperia australiensis (adult and immature female in pulmonary artery; female nymph near lung); Sebekia johnstoni (nymphs and adults); S. multiannulata (nymphs and adults); S. purdiae.

Crocodylus niloticus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 [= Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768] (Nile crocodyle; Nilotic crocodyle). Parasites: Alofia nilotici; A. simpsoni; Leiperia cincinnalis (adults in tracheae and lungs); Sebekia cesarisi; S. minor (young hosts infected experimentally with larvae obtained from fish); S. okavangoensis; Subtriquetra rileyi (final hosts); S. wedli.

Crocodylus niloticus suchus I. Geoffroy, 1807 [= Crocodylus vulgaris Cuvier, 1897] (Nile crocodyle). Parasites: Leiperia cincinnalis (in heart; aorta, bronchiae, and tracheae); Sebekia minor (adults in bronchii).

Crocodylus novaeguineae K.P. Schmidt, 1928 (New Guinea crocodyle). Parasite: Sebekia novaeguineae (adults).

Crocodylus palustris (Lesson, 1831) (Indian marsh crocodyle; Indian swamp crocodile; mugger crocodile). Parasites: Diesingia megacephala (imbebed in flesh of head); Subtriquetra megacephalum (in head); S. shipleyi.

Crocodylus porosus Schneider, 1801 (saltwater crocodyle). Parasites: Alofia ginae (in lungs and bronchioles); A. merkii (single male in branchioles); A. travassoi; Leiperia australiensis (nymph in lung and tracheae); Alofia solaris (in lungs); Sebekia johnstoni; S. multiannulata (nymphs and adults); S. purdiae (nymphs and adults); S. sp. (females in lung); Selfia porosus (in bronchioles); Subtriquetra megacephalum; S. shipleyi; ? Waddycephalus vitiensis.

Crocodylus siamensis Schneider, 1801 (Siamese crocodyle). Parasite: Sebekia joubini (adults in nasal cavity).

Mecistops cataphractus (G. Cuvier, 1825) [= Crocodylus cataphractus Cuvier, 1825] (African slender-snouted crocodile). Parasites: Agema silvaepalustris (in lungs); Alofia parva (in lungs); Leiperia cinccinalis (infective larva); Sebekia okavangoensis.

Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope, 1861 [= Osteolaemus tetraspis osborni Schmidt, 1919 (broad-nosed crocodile; dwarf crocodile; west African dwarf crocodile). Parasites: Agema silvaepalustris (in lungs); Alofia parva (in lungs); Sebekia mississippiensis (causing fatal pentastomiasis); S. okavangoensis.


Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin, 1789) (gavial; gharial; Indian crocodile; Sangor crocodile). Parasites: Alofia indica (adults in lungs and tracheae); Subtriquetra megacephalum; S. shipleyi (in pharynx).


Batagur baska (Gray, 1831) (a mud-turtle: batagur; river terrapin). Parasite: Diesingia kachugensis (young stage in liver).

Batagur kachuga Gray, 1831 [= Kachuga lineata Gray, 1831] (a semiaquatic Oriental tortoise: mud-turtle; red-crowned roofed turtle). Parasites: Diesingia kachugensis (young encysted in liver); D. megastomum.


Hydromedusa tectifera Cope, 1869 (South American snake-necked turtle; "cágado"). Parasite: Diesingia megastomum (adults).

Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) [= Hydraspis geoffroana (Schweigger, 1812)] (Geoffroy's side-necked turtle; Geoffroy's toadhead turtle; "cágado"). Parasite: Diesingia megastomum (adult in lung).


Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Chelhydra serpentina (Linnaeus, 1758) (common snapping turtle). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephala.


Pseudemys nelsoni Carr, 1938 (Florida redbelly turtle, a freshwater turtle). Parasite: Sebekia mississippiensis.


Pelomedusa subrufa subrufa (Lacépède, 1788) [= Pelomedusa subrufa (Lacépède, 1788) nigra (Gray, 1863)] (helmeted turtle). Parasite: Pelonia africana (immature forms, males and females in lungs).

Pelusios sinuatus (Smith, 1838) (east African serrated mud turtle; serrated hinged terrapin). Parasite: Pelonia africana (immature forms, males and females in lungs).


Testudo Linnaeus, 1758 sp. (a tortoise). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larvae).


Apalone ferox (Schneider, 1783) (Florida soft-shell turtle). Parasite: Alofia sp.

Cycloderma aubryi (Duméril, 1856) (Aubry's flapshaped turtle; Aubry's soft-shelled turtle). Parasite: Leiperia cincinnalis.

SAURIA (lizards, geckos): AGAMIDAE:

Japalura swinhonis Günther, 1864 (Taiwan japalure, an agamid lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella hebitihamata.

Laudakia stellio stellio (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Agama stellio (Linnaeus, 1758)] (roughtail rock agama). Parasites: Raillietiella aegyptii; R. affinis (adults); R. gehyrae (adult).

Uromastyx aegyptia aegyptia (Forskal, 1775) (Egyptian dab lizard; Egyptian mastigure; Egyptian spiny-tailed lizard). Parasites: Raillietiella aegyptii; R. affinis.


Agama aculeata aculeata Merrem, 1820 (ground agama). Parasite: Raillietiella namibiensis (larvae).

Agama agama (Linnaeus, 1758) (agamid rainbow lizard; common agama; red-headed agama). Parasite: Raillietiella sp. (infection).

Agama planiceps Peters, 1862 [= Agama planiceps Peters, 1862; Agama planiceps planiceps Peters, 1862] (Namib rock agama). Parasite: Raillietiella namibiensis (in lungs).

Trapelus mutabilis (Merrem, 1820) [= Agama mutabilis Merrem, 1820] (desert agama). Parasite: Raillietiella aegyptii.


Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829) [= Amphibolurus barbatus (Cuvier, 1829)] (bearded dragon lizard; jew lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella amphiboluri (female in lungs).

Pogona vitticeps (Ahl, 1926) [= Amphibolurus vitticeps Ahl, 1926] (central bearded dragon). Parasite: Raillietiella amphiboluri.


Calotes Cuvier, 1817 sp. Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni.

Calotes versicolor (Daudin, 1802) (eastern gardens lizard; oriental golden lizard). Parasites: Porocephalus clavatus; Raillietiella geckonis (in lungs); R. gehyrae (rates of infection in lungs); R. hemidactyli (adults in lungs, causing pulmonary pathology); R. sp.


Nephrurus laevissimus Mertens, 1958 (Australian gecko; smooth knob-tail). Parasite: Raillietiella scincoides (third stage larvae in large intestine).


Chamaeleo namaquensis Smith, 1831 (Namaqua chameleon). Parasite: Raillietiella mabuiae (adults).

Furcifer oustaleti (Mocquard, 1894) [= Chamaeleo oustaleti Mocquard, 1894] (Oustalet's chameleon). Parasites: Raillietiella chamaeleonis (adults in pulmonary sacs); R. hemidactyli.

Furcifer verrucosus (G. Cuvier, 1829) [= Chamaeleo verrucosus Cuvier, 1829] (Malagasy giant chameleon). Parasites: Raillietiella chamaeleonis (adults in pulmonary sacs); R. hemidactyli; R. sp.


Diplodactylus vittatus Gray, 1832 (eastern stone gecko; wood gecko). Parasites: Porocephalus sp.; Raillietiella sp.; Waddycephalus sp.


Gehyra australis (Gray, 1845) (house gecko; native gecko; northern dtella; top-end dtella). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Gehyra mutilata (Wiegmann, 1834) [= Peropus mutilatus (Wiegmann, 1834)] (common four-clawed gecko; house gecko; stump-toed gecko). Parasites: Raillietiella affinis; R. gehyrae (in lungs); R. hebitihamata; R. hemidactyli (adults).

Gekko Linnaeus, 1758 sp. Parasites: Raillietiella geckonis (in lung); R. gehyrae; R. hemidactylus.

Gekko gecko gecko (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Gekko verticillatus Laurenti, 1758] (today gecko; Siamese gecko). Parasites: Pentastomida sp. (causing pentastomiasis); Raillietiella affinis (in lung); R. geckonis (in lungs); R. indicus (in lungs).

Gekko monarchus (Schlegel, in Duméril & Bibron, 1836) (spotted house gecko). Parasites: Raillietiella hebitihamata; R. monarchus.

Gekko smithii Gray, 1842 (green eyed today; large forest gecko). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Hemidactylus (Gray, 1825) sp. Parasites: Raillietiella cartagenensis; R. sp.

Hemidactylus angulatus Hallowell, 1852 [= Hemidactylus brooksi haitianus Meerwarth, 1901; Hemidactylus brooksi angulatus Hallowell, 1852] (Antillean house gecko; Brook's house gecko; Burmese gecko; western house gecko). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (in lungs); Raillietiella affinis (having pathogenetic effects); R. hemidactyli (in lungs); R. sp. (frenatus?); R. spp.; R. teagueselfi.

Hemidactylus brooksi Gray, 1845 (Brook's house gecko). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Hemidactylus flaviviridis Rüppell, 1835 (northern house gecko; yellow-belly gecko). Parasite: Raillietiella geckonis (adult).

Hemidactylus frenatus Schlegel (in Duméril & Bibron), 1836 (Asian house gecko; chikhak; common house gecko). Parasites: Pentastomida sp. (causing pentastomid infections); Raillietiella gehyrae (in lungs); R. hemidactyli (adults in air sacs and lungs); Raillietiella indica (nymphs and adults); Waddycephalus sp. (nymphs and adults).

Hemidactylus gleadowi Murray, 1884 [= Hemidactylus gleadovi Murray, 1884] (Gleadow's house gecko). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni; Raillietiella hemidactylus.

Hemidactylus leschenaultii Duméril & Bibron, 1836 (bark gecko; Leschenault's leaf-toed gecko). Parasites: Raillietiella afinis; R. maculatus.

Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau De Jonnès, 1818) (house gecko; invader lizard). Parasites: Raillietiella cartagenensis (in lungs); R. hebitihamata (in respiratory tracs of adult hosts only); R. hemidactyli (adults); R. mottae (causing infection in adult hosts only); Raillietiella sp.

Hemidactylus maculatus Duméril & Bibron, 1836 (spotted leaf-toed gecko). Parasite: Raillietiella maculatus.

Hemidactylus platyurus Schneider, 1792) [= Cosymbotus platyurus (Schneider, 1792)] (flat-tailed house gecko; flattened gecko). Parasites: Raillietiella gehyrae (in lungs); R. hebitihamata (in lungs).

Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Hemidactylus turcicus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (Mediterranean house gecko). Parasites: Raillietiella furcocercum; R. hebitihamata (causing infection); R. teagueselfi.

Heteronotia binoei (Gray, 1845) (Binoe's prickly gecko). Parasite: Waddycephalus sp. (encysted nymphs).

Lepidodactylus lugubris (Duméril & Bibron, 1836) (common smooth-scaled gecko; mourning gecko). Parasites: Raillietiella affinis; R. hebitihamata.

Phelsuma standingi Methuen & Hewitt, 1913 (standing's day gecko). Parasite: Pentastomida sp.


Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhart & Lütken, 1862) (blue-tailed lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella mottae (in lungs).


Anolis porcatus porcatus Gray, 1840 (Cuban green anole) [= Anolis porcatus Gray, 1840]. Parasite: Linguatula sp.

Norops sagrei (Duméril & Bibron, 1837) [= Anolis sagrei Duméril & Bibron, 1837] (Bahamian brown anole; Cuban brown anole). Parasite: Raillietiella hebitihamata.


Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) (Peter's lava lizard). Parasites: Raillietiella hebitihamata; R. mottae (causing pulmonary infection).

Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825) (striped lava lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella mottae (causing pulmonary infection).

Tropidurus torquatus (Wied Neuwied, 1820) (Amazon lava lizard; "taraguira"). Parasite: Raillietiella freitasi.


Gallotia atlantica atlantica (Peters & Doria, 1882) [= Gallotia atlantica (Peters & Doria, 1882)] (Atlantic lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella morenoi (in lung).


Phyllopezus periosus Rodrigues, 1986. Parasite: Raillietiella mottae (causing pulmonary infection).

Phyllopezus pollicaris (Spix, 1825) (Brazilian gecko; Paraíba gecko). Parasite: Raillietiella mottae (causing pulmonary infection).

Tarentola annularis (É. Geoffroy de Saint-Hilaire, 1827) (ringed wall gecko; white-spotted gecko). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.


Varanus Merrem, 1820 sp. (a monitor lizard). Parasites: Elenia asutralis (adults); Raillietiella kochi.

Varanus (Odaria). Parasite: pentastomid (intestine).

Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc, 1792) [= Varanus exanthematicus exanthematicus (Bosc, 1792); Varanus exanthematicus ocellatus Rüppell & Heyden (in Rüppell), 1830; Varanus ocellatus Heyden (in Rüppell), 1830] (Bosc's monitor lizard; savannah monitor lizard). Parasites: Raillietiella sp.; R. kochi (adults in lungs); Sambonia sp. n. (eggs, immature stages, and adults in lungs and liver, causing pentastomiais); S. lohrmanni (in lungs).

Varanus griseus griseus (Daudin, 1803) [= Varanus griseus (Daudin, 1803)] (western desert monitor). Parasites: Raillietiella kochi (in lungs); Sambonia clavata.

Varanus indicus (Daudin, 1802) (mangrove monitor). Parasites: Sambonia solomonensis (adults); S. varani (adult in lung).

Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912 (Komodoro dragon). Parasite: Sambonia clavata.

Varanus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Varanus nilotica (Linnaeus, 1758)] (Egyptian monitor; Nile monitor lizard; Nilotic monitor; ocellated monitor; water Leguaan). Parasites: Porocephalus clavatus (in lungs); Sambonia clavata.

Varanus salvator salvator (Laurenti, 1768) [= Varanus salvator (Laurenti, 1768)] (common water monitor). Parasites: Elenia australis (in lung); Sambonia clavata; S. parapodium (adults in lung).

Varanus varius (White, 1790) (lace monitor). Parasites: Elenia australis (adults in lung).


Tiliqua scincoides scincoides (White, 1790) [= Tiliqua scincoides (White, 1790)] (blue-tongued skink; common blue-tongue). Parasite: Raillietiella scincoides.


Lialis jicari Boulenger, 1903 [= Liasis jicari Boulenger, 1903] (Papua snake lizard). Parasite: Elenia liasisi.


Brasiliscincus agilis (Raddi, 1823) [= Mabuya agilis Raddi, 1823] (a skink). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Copeoglossum arajara (Rebouças-Spieker,1981) [= Mabuya arajara Rebouças-Spieker, 1981] (Arajara mabuya). Parasite: Raillietiella mottae.

Eutropis carinata (Schneider, 1801) [= Mabuya carinata (Schneider, 1801)] (keeled Indian mabuya; common skink; many-keeled grass skink). Parasites: Raillietiella gehyrae (direct life cycle); R. hemidactyli; R. maculatus.

Eutropis longicaudata (Hallowell, 1857) [= Mabuya longicaudata (Hallowell, 1857)] (longtail mabuya). Parasite: Raillietiella hebitihamata.

Psychosaura macrorhyncha (Hoge, 1946) [= Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946] (a skink). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Trachylepis homalocephala (Wiegmann, 1828) [= Mabuya homalocephala (Wiegmann, 1828)] (red-slided skink). Parasites: Raillietiella gehyrae; R. mabuya.

Trachylepis atlantica (Schmidt, 1945) [= Mabuya punctata (Gray, 1839); Trachylepis atlanticus (Schmidt, 1945); Trachylepis maculata (Gray, 1839)] (a skink). Parasite: Raillietiella freitasi (in lung).

Trachylepis maculilabris (Gray, 1839) [= Mabuya maculilabris (Gray, 1839)] (speckle-lipped mabuya). Parasite: Raillietiella maculilabris.

Trachylepis striata striata (Peters, 1844) [= Mabuya striata (Peters, 1844)] (African styriped mabuya, a scincid lizard). Parasites: Raillietiella gehyrae (evidence for direct life cycle in lungs); R. maculilabris.

Trachylepis sulcata (Peters, 1867) [= Mabuya sulcata (Peters, 1867)] (African skink; western rock skink). Parasite: Raillietiella mabuiae (adults in lung).


Chalcides sepsoides (Audouin, 1829) (elongated barrel skink; sand skink; wedge-snouted skink). Parasites: Raillietiella aegyptii; R. affinis (adults).

Eumeces schneideri schneideri (Daudin, 1802) [= Eumeces schneiderii (Daudin, 1802)] (golden skink; Schneider's skink). Parasites: Raillieteiella aegytyii; R. affinis (adults).

Scincus scincus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Scincus officinalis Laurenti, 1768] (sand fish skink). Parasites: Raillietiella aegyptii; R. affinis (adults).


Ctenotus taeniolatus (White, 1790) [= Lygosoma taeniolatum White, 1790] (Australian striped skink; copper-tailed ctenotus). Parasites: Porocephalus sp.; Waddycephalus sp.

Hemiergis decresiensis decresciensis (Cuvier, 1829) [= Hemiergis decresiensis (Cuvier, 1829)] (three-toed earless skink). Parasite: Waddycephalus sp. (encysted nymph).

Prasinohaema virens (Peters, 1881) (green tree skink). Parasite: Raillietiella hebitihamata.

Sphenomorphus Fitzinger, 1843 spp. (scincid skinks). Parasite: Kiricephalus sp. (nymphs).

Sphenomorphus indicus (Gray, 1853) (Hymalaian forest skink; Indian forest skink). Parasite: Raillietiella hebitihamata.

Sphenomorphus jobiensis (Meyer, 1874) (New Guinean skink). Parasite: Kiricephalus sp. (in intestine).

Sphenomorphus simus (Sauvage, 1879) (a skink). Parasite: Kiricephalus sp.


Gonatodes Fitzinger, 1843 sp. Parasite: Raillietiella cartagenensis.


Cnemidophorus abaetensis E.J.R. Dias, Rocha & Vrcibradic, 2002 (Bahian sand dune lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella aff. furcocerca.

Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) (Spix's whiptail). Parasite: Raillietiella aff. furcocerca.

Dracaena guianensis Daudin, 1802 (a teid reptile: Guyana Caiman lizard; northern Caiman lizard). Parasite: Porocephalus clavatus (young stages).

"Podinema sp.n.". Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.

"Podinema nattereri (Diesing, 1850)". Parasite: Leiperia gracilis. Remarks: Podinema nattereri (Diesing, 1850) has not been confirmed as a valid name by Heymons (1935: 169) nor herein. It does not appear in Reptile Database (2012).

Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Podinema teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758)] (a monitor lizard: black tegu; common teguixin; golden tegu; great tegu; "teiú"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis; Porocephalus crotali (immature specimen); Sambonia clavata (in body cavity); S. oxycephalum (young stages); S. wardi.

SERPENTES (snakes):

"Urocrotalon catesbyanum Fitzinger, 1843". Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (adult). Remarks: Not validated by Heymons (1935: 174). Not cited in Reptile Database (2012).


Acrochordus granulatus (Schneider, 1799) (little filesnake; marine file snake; wart snake). Parasites: Armillifer pomeroyi; Sambonia clavata (adults).


Chironius carinatus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Herpetodryas carinatus Garman, 1887] (golden tree-snake; sipo; "cobra-cipó"; "acutimbóia"). Parasite: Kiricephalus coarctatus (in lung).

Coelognathus helena (Daudin, 1803) [= Coluber helena Daudin, 1803; Elaphe helena (Daudin, 1803)] (common trinket snake). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Coelognathus radiatus Boie, 1827 [= Elaphe radiata (Boie, 1827)] (copperhead ratsnake; radiated rattlesnake). Parasite: Waddycephalus radiata (female).

Coluber Linnaeus, 1758 sp. Parasites: Raillietiella orientalis (adult); Leiperia gracilis; Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Coluber constrictor constrictor Linnaeus, 1758 [= Bascanion constrictor Baird & Girard, 1853; Coluber constrictor; Linnaeus, 1758; Zamenis constrictor (Linnaeus, 1758)] (American black snake; eastern racer; northern black racer). Parasites: Kiricephalus coarctatus (in lung); K. constrictor (in lungs); Raillietiella bicaudatus; R. furcocercum (in lungs).

Coluber constrictor flaviventris Say, 1823 [= Coluber flaviventris Say, 1823; Zamenis flaviventris (Say, 1823)] (eastern yellowbelly racer). Parasites: Kiricephalus coarctatus; Raillietiella furcocercum.

Coluber flagellum Shaw, 1802 [= Coluber flagelliformis (Duméril & Bibron, 1854); Zamenis flagelliformis Duméril & Bibron, 1854] (eastern coachwhip). Parasite: Kiricephalus coarctatus (in lungs).

Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia (Laurenti, 1768) [= Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia hotamboeia (Laurenti, 1768)] (red-lipped snake). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Dendrelaphis calligastra (Günther, 1867) [= Ahaetulla calligaster (Günther, 1867); Ahaetulla calligastra (Günther, 1867)] (green treesnake; northern tree snake; painted bronze snake). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (in lung); Waddycephalus calligaster (female); W. terestiusculus.

Dendrelaphis pictus pictus (Gmelin, 1789) [= Dendrophis pictus (Gmelin, 1789)] (common bronze-black; Indonesian bronze-black; painted bronze back). Parasite: Waddycephalus komodoensis.

Dendrelaphis punctulatus (Gray, 1826) [= Dendrophis punctulata (Gray, 1826); Dendrophis punctulatus (Gray, 1826)] (common tree snake; green tree snake). Parasite: Waddycephalus punctulatus (adults in lung).

Dinodon semicarinatum (Cope, 1860) [= Dinodon semicarinatus (Cope, 1860)] (Loo-Choo big toothed snake; Ryukyu odd-tooth snake). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Drymarchon corais corais (Boie, 1827) [= Coluber corais Boie, 1827; Drymarchon corais (Boie, 1827)] (corais snake; Couper's snake; "papa-ovo"). Parasites: Kiricephalus coarctatus (in lungs); Raillietiella furcocercum.

Drymarchon couperi (Holbroock, 1842) [= Drymarchon corais couperi (Holbrook, 1842); Elaphe corais couperi (Holbrook, 1842)] (Couper's snake; eastern indigo snake). Parasites: Kiricephalus coarctatus (in lungs); Raillietiella bicaudata (adults).

Elaphe carinata carinata (Günther, 1864) [= Elaphe carinata (Günther, 1864)] (keeled rattlesnake; king rattlesnake; Taiwan stink snake). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Elaphe quatuorlineata quatuorlineata (Bonnaterre, 1790) [= Elaphe quatuorlineata (Bonnaterre, 1790)] (four-lined ratsnake). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Hapsidophrys smaragdina (Schlegel, 1837) [= Gastropyxis smaragdina (Schlegel, 1837)] (emerald snake). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (larvae).

Hemorrhois ravergieri ravergieri (Ménétries, 1832) [= Coluber ravergieri Menétries, 1832; Zamenis ravergieri (Menétries, 1832)] (spotted whip snake). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Hierophis gemonensis (Laurenti, 1768) [= Coluber gemonensis (Laurentii, 1768); Zamenis gemonensis Laurenti, 1768] (Balkan racer; Balkan whip snake; dark-green snake). Parasite: Raillietiella mediterranea (in lung).

Leptophis ahaetulla liocercus (Wied Neuwied, 1824) [= Leptophis liocercus (Wied Neuwied, 1824)] (parrott snake). Parasite: Cephalobaena tetrapoda (in lungs).

Liophis miliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Rhadineae fusca Cope, 1891] (a water colubrid: military ground snake; "cobra-lisa"). Parasite: Raillietiella furcocercum (in lungs).

Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825) (cobra-de-capim). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Liophis reginae reginae (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Leimadophis reginae Linnaeus, 1758] (a small reticulate snake: royal ground snake; "jabutibóia"). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Lycodon rushtrati rushtrati (Fischer, 1886) (Formosa wolf snake). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni.

Mastigodryas bifossatus bifossatus (Raddi, 1820) [= Dryadophis bifossatus (Raddi, 1820); Drymobius bifossatus Raddi, 1820; Coluber lichtensteinii Wiedl-Neuwied, 1824; Mastigodryas bifossatus (Raddi, 1820)] (Rio tropical racer; "cobra-nova"). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs); Kiricephalus coarctatus (nymphs in lungs and body cavity); Porocephalus crotali; Raillietiella furcocercum (larvae in mesenteries).

Mastigodryas boddaerti boddaerti (Sentzen, 1796) [= Drymobios boddaerti Sentzen, 1796; Mastigodryas boddaerti (Sentzen, 1796)] (Bodaert's tropical racer; "biru-listrada"). Parasites: Kiricephalus sp.; Raillietiella furcocercum.

Oligodon cruentatus (Günther, 1868) [= Simotes cruentatus Günther, 1868] (pegu kukri snake). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (immature forms in mesentery and in connective tissues of stomach).

Oligodon pupurascens (Schlegel, 1837) (brown kukri snake). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (immature forms in body cavity).

Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) (brown vine snake; Mexican vine snake; "bicuda"). Parasites: Cephalobaena tetrapoda; Raillietiella furcocercum.

Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus (Daudin, 1803) [= Coluber melanoleucus Daudin, 1803; Elaphe melanoleucus (Daudin, 1803); Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus (Daudin, 1803)] (eastern pine snake; northern pine snake; Mexican snake). Parasites: Kiricephalus coarctatus (juvenile); Raillietiella bicaudata; R. furcocercum (in lungs).

Platyceps karelini (Brandt, 1838) (spotted desert racer). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali.

Platyceps najadum (Eichwald, 1831) [= Coluber dahli Fitzinger, 1827] (slender whip snake; Dahl's wipe snake). Parasite: Raillietiella mediterranea (in lung).

Pseustes sulphureus (Wagler, 1824) [= Phrynomax sulphureus (Wagler, 1824)] (Amazon puffing snake; yellow-bellied puffing snake; "limpa-campo"). Parasite: Raillietiella furcocercum (in lungs).

Ptyas Fitzinger, 1843 sp. (a rat-snake). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni.

Ptyas korros (Schlegel, 1837) [= Coluber korros Schlegel, 1837; Zamenis korros (Schlegel, 1837)] (Chinese rasnake; Indian rat-snake). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (in lungs); Porocephalus crotali.

Ptyas mucosa (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Coluber mucosus Linnaeus, 1758; Ptyas mucosus (Linnaeus, 1758); Zamenis mucosus Linnaeus, 1758] (Dhaman; Indian rat-snake; oriental rat-snake). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (adult in mesentery, stomach, liver, and lungs); Porocephalus crotali (adults in lungs); Raillietiella orientalis (larvae in body wall, intestine, pleurae, liver, tracheae, and lungs).

Spilotes Wagler, 1830 sp. (a tropical rat snake). Parasite: Raillietiella furcocercum (in lung).

Spilotes pullatus pullatus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Spilotes pullatus Linnaeus, 1758] (chicken snake; South American ratsnake; tigre snake; whip snake; yellow ratsnake; "carinana"). Parasites: Porocephalus crotali (in lung); P. stilesi; Sambonia wardi; Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Thelotornis capensis oatesi (Günther, 1881)] (Oat's vine snake; twig snake). Parasite: Raillietiella congolensis (adults).

Thelotornis kirtlandi (Hallowell, 1844) (bird snake; forest vine snake; twig snake). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Thrasops jacksonii Günther, 1895 [= Thrasops jacksoni jacksoni Günther, 1895] (Jackson's black tree snake). Parasites: Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).


Clelia clelia (Daudin, 1803) (mussurana snake; "muçarana"). Parasites: Kiricephalus clellii (in lung); Raillietiella furcocercum (egg and larva).

Coniophanes imperialis (Kennicott, in Baird, 1859) [= Boa constrictor imperialis (Kennicot, in Baird, 1859)] (black-stripped snake; tamaulipan black-striped snake). Parasite: Porocephalus clavatus (eggs and nymphs).

Conophis lineatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) (road guarder). Parasite: Raillietiella furcocercum.

Farancia abacura abacura (Holbrook, 1836) [= Farancia abacura (Holbrook, 1836) (eastern abacura; mud snake). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Helicops angulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (mountain keelback, a water snake). Parasite: Porocephalus stilesi (adults in lungs).

Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1837) [= Helicops leopardina (Schlegel, 1837) ](leopard keelback). Parasite: Sebekia sp.

Heterodon Latreille & Sonnin, 1801 sp. (North American hose-nosed snake). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larva).

Hydrodynastes bicinctus bicinctus (Herrmann, 1804) [= Hydrodynastes bicinctus (Herrmann, 1804)] (Herrmann's water snake; "cobra-d'água"). Parasite: Kiricephalus coarctatus (nymphs in lungs and body cavity).

Hydrodynastes gigas (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) (Brazilian smooth snake; false water cobra). Parasites: Porocephalus sp. (infestation by nymphs); P. crotali (adult in lung).

Lygophis lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Aporophis lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758); Coluber lineatus Linnaeus, 1758); Liophis lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (erroneous spelling)] (lined ground snake). Parasites: Cephalobaena tetrapoda (in respiratory tract); Kiricephalus coarctatus; Raillietiella colubrilineati.

Philodryas baroni Berg, 1895 (Baron's green racer; Paraguayan tree snake). Parasite: Cephalobaena tetrapoda (in lung).

Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann, 1835) (Chilean green racer; Chilean long-tailed snake). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (Paraguayan green racer). Parasites: Cephalobaena tetrapoda (in lungs, pulmonary peritoneum, and tracheae); Raillietiella furcocercum.

Pseudoeryx plicatilis plicatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Dimades plicatilis (Linnaeus, 1758); Pseudoeryx plicatilis (Linnaeus, 1758)] (eel-snake; South American pond snake). Parasite: Sebekia oxycephalum (larva).

Thamnodynastes chaquensis (Bergna & Alvarez, 1993) ("falsa-jararaca"). Parasite: Raillietiella furcocercum.

Xenodon merremii (Wagler, 1824) [= Ophis merremi Wagler, 1824; Ophis merremii Wagler, 1824] (Wagler's snake; "boipeva"). Parasites: Porocephalus crotali [doubtfull identification, probably Kiricephalus coarctatus] (in tracheae); Raillietiella furcocercum; Sambonia wardi; Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).


Amphiesma pryeri (Boulenger, 1887 [= Natrix pryeri pryeri Boulenger, 1887] (Pryer's keelback). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Amphiesma stolatum (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Natrix stolatus (Linnaeus, 1758); Tropidonotus stolatus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (buff-striped keelback). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (immature forms in body cavity).

Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Tropidonotus natrix (Linnaeus, 1758) (European grass snake). Parasites: Armillifer monifilormis moniliformis (larva); Porocephalus clavatus (larva).

Nerodia fasciata fasciata (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Tropidonotus fasciatus (Linnaeus, 1766)] (American mocassin; banded water snake; mocassin snake; southern water snake). Parasite: Kiricephlaus coarctatus (in lung). Remarks: Diesing (1850) cites Pentastoma gracile from Cloelia fasciata, a species not recognized by Heymons (1935).

Nerodia floridana (Goff, 1936) [= Natrix cyclopion floridana Gott, 1936] (Florida green water snake). Parasite: Kiricephalus coarctatus (larvae).

Nerodia taxispilota (Holbrook, 1838) (brown water snake). Parasite: Sebekia mississippiensis (experimental infection).

Rhabdophis tigrinus (F. Boie, 1826) [= Natrix tigrina lateralis (Berthold, 1859)] (tiger keelbak). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (in flesh and viscera).

Thamnophis proximus proximus (Say, 1823) [= Thamnophis proximus (Say, 1823)] (redstripe ribbon snake; western ribbon snake). Parasite: Kiricephalus coarctatus (in lung).

Tropidonophis picturatus (Schlegel, 1837) [= Tropidonotus picturatus (Schlegel, 1837)] (painted keelback, a water snake). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis.

Xenochrophis piscator (Schneider, 1799) [= Natrix piscator (Schneider, 1799); Tropidonotus piscator Schneider, 1799] (Asiatic water snake; checquered keelback; Indian water-snake). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (nymphs and immature forms in body cavity); Pentastomida sp.; Raillietiella orientalis (larva encysted in liver and lung; adult in liver and lung); R. piscator (in lung).

Xenochrophis punctulatus (Günther, 1858) [= Nerodia punctata Günther, 1858 (erroneous spelling)]. Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (immature forms in body cavity).


Austrelaps superbus (Günther, 1858) [= Denisonia superba (Günther, 1858); Hoplocephalus superbus (Günther, 1858)] (Australian copperhead snake; ground-dwelling copperhead snake; lowlands copperhead). Parasites: Linguatula sp. (in lung); Parasambonia sp.; P. minor (adults); Waddycephalus sp.; W. superbus (adults in lung); W. terestiusculus (in mouth).

Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider, 1801) (rat snake; banded krait). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (larvae in mesentery and stomach); Raillietiella orientalis (in coelom; larvae in fat body, connective tissue of back, and lung).

Bungarus multicinctus Blyth, 1861 [= Bungarus candidus multiscinctus Blyth, 1861] (Taiwanese many-banded krait). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis (adults in lungs, larvae in connecdtive tissue of back and of lungs).

Cryptophis nigrescens (Günther, 1862) (eastern small-eyed snake; short-tailed snake). Parasite: Waddycephalus sp. (nymphs encysted in intestinal connective tissue).

Demansia Gray, 1842 sp. Parasite: Waddycephalus longicaudata.

Demansia psammophis psammophis (Schlegel, 1837) [= Demansia psammophis (Schlegel, 1837); Diemenia psammophis (Schlegel, 1837); Diemenia reticulata (Gray, 1842)] (brown snake; grey whip-snake; yellow faced whip-snake). Parasites: Parasambonia bridgesi (female); Waddycephalus longicaudata (adults in lung); W. terestiusculus.

Dendroaspis jamesoni jamesoni (Traill, 1843) [= Dendraspis jamesoni (Traill, 1843)] (Jameson's green mamba; trail green mamba; western green mamba). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Drysdalia coronoides (Günther, 1858) (white-lipped snake). Parasite: Waddycephalus sp. (adults in lungs).

Hemachatus haemachatus (Bonnaterre, 1790) [= Sepedon haemachates (Bonnaterre, 1789)] (ringhaus; ring-necked spitting cobra). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adults); Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Micrurus Wagler, 1824 sp. [= Elaps Merrem, 1820 sp.]. Parasites: Leiperia gracilis; Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Micrurus fulvius (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Elaps fulvius (Linnaeus, 1766)] (American cobra; bead-snake; common coral snake; eastern coral snake; Harlequin coral snake; Harlequin snake; "cobra-coral"). Parasite: Kiricephalus coarctatus (juveniles in subcutaneous muscles).

Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820) (caatinga coral snake). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Micrurus tschudii tschudii Jan, 1858 [= Helicops tschudii (Jan, 1858)] (desert coral snake). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis.

Naja Laurenti, 1768 sp. Parasite: Porocephalus benoiti (in intestine).

Naja anchietae Bocage, 1879 (cobra). Parasite: Cubirea annulatus (female).

Naja atra Cantor, 1842 [= Naja naja atra (Cantor, 1842)]. Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Naja kaouthia Lesson, 1831 [= Naja naja kaouthia Lesson, 1831] (monocellate cobra; monocled cobra). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Naja melanoleuca Hallowell, 1857 (black and white cobra; black-lipped cobra). Parasites: Cubirea annulata (adults); C. pomeroyi (adults in lungs); Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Naia haie (Linnaeus, 1758) (erroneous spelling); Naja hage (Linnaeus, 1758) (erroneous spelling); Naja haje (Linnaeus, 1758); Naia tripudians Merrem, 1820 (erroneous spelling); Naja tripudians Merrem, 1820] (Egyptian cobra; golden cobra; Indian cobra). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adults); A. stilesi (adults in larynx); Cubirea annulata (nymphs encysted in muscles and over peritoneum; young and adult in lung); C. pomeroyi (in lung); Porocephalus subuliferum (young forms in larynx and lungs); Raillietiella agcoi; R. orientalis (larvae in connective tissue and coelom).

Naja nigricollis Reinhardt, 1843 [= Naia nigricollis Reinhardt, 1843 (erroneous spelling); Naja nigricollis nigricollis Reinhardt, 1843; Naja atriceps (Fischer, 1885); Naja naja atriceps (Fischer, 1885)] (black cobra; black-necked spitting cobra). Parasites: Cubirea annulata (adults); C. pomeroyi (adults in gut); Raillietiella agcoi; R. boulengeri (adults).

Naja philippinensis Taylor, 1922 [= Naja naja philippinensis Taylor, 1922] (Philippine cobra). Parasites: Raillietiella agcoi (in lungs); R. orientalis (causing hyper-infection).

Naja sputatrix Boie, 1827 [= Naja tripudians sputatrix Boie, 1827]. (Indonesian cobra). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Notechis Boulenger, 1896 sp. (a tiger snake). Parasite: Waddycephalus sp.

Notechis scutatus scutatus (Peters, 1861) [= Notechis ater niger (Kinghorn, 1921); Notechis scutatus (Peters, 1861)] (black riger snake; eastern tiger snake; mainland tigersnake). Parasites: Waddycephalus sp. (adults in lung); W. scutata; W. terestiusculus.

Pseudechis sp. Wagler, 1830. Parasite: Parasambonia sp.

Pseudechis australis (Gray, 1842) (king brown snake; mulga snake). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Pseudechis porphyriacus porphyriacus (Shaw, 1794) [= Pseudechis porphyriacus (Shaw, 1794); Pseudechis porphirineus (Shaw, 1794) (erroneous spelling)] (Australian black snake; red-bellied black snake). Parasites: Parasambonia bridgesi (adults in lungs); Waddycephalus longicaudata; W. porphyriacus (adults); W. terestiusculus (in lungs).

Pseudonaja nuchalis Günther, 1858 (gwardar; western brown snake). Parasite: Waddycephalus longicauda (in lung).

Pseudonaja textilis textilis (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) [= Diemenia textilis Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; Pseudonaja textilis (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854)] (eastern brown snake). Parasites: Raillietiella sp.; Waddycephalus sp. (female); W. porphyriaceus; W. terestiusculus (in lungs).

Tropidechis carinatus (Krefft, 1863) (Clarence river snake; rough-scaled snake). Parasite: Sambonia bridgei (female).


Anilius scytale (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Ilysia scytgale Linnaeus, 1758] (false coral snake; red pipe snake). Parasite: Pentastomida sp.


Acrantophis dumerili Jan, 1860 (Dumeril's ground boa). Parasites: Gigliolella brumpti; Raillietiella tetrapoda (male in air sacs).

Acrantophis madagascariensis (Duméril & Bibron, 1844) [= Boa madagascariensis Duméril & Bibron, 1844)] (Madagascar ground boa). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (larvae).

Sanzinia madagascariensis madagascariensis (Duméril & Bibron, 1844) [= Corallus madagascariensis (Duméril & Bibron, 1844); Sanzinia madagascariensis (Duméril & Bibron, 1844)] (Madagascar ground boa; Madagascar tree boa). Parasites: Gigliolella brumpti (adults in lungs); Kiricephlaus pattoni (in lungs).


Boa constrictor Linnaeus, 1758 (boa constrictor; common boa; "gibóia"). Parasites: Kiricephalus coarctatus (in lung); Porocephalus clavatus (adults in lungs, causing pentastomiasis); P. crotali (adults in lungs); Raillietiella furcocercum (in lungs); Sambonia wardi; Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Boa constrictor amarali (Stull, 1932) (short-tailed boa). Parasite: Porocephalus sp.

Boa constrictor imperator Daudin, 1803 [= Boa imperator Daudin, 1803] (emperor boa; "cobra-de-veado"). Parasites: Porocephalus clavatus (adults in lungs); P. crotali (adults in lungs and body cavity); Raillietiella furcocercum (in lungs).

Boa constrictor nebulosa (Lazell, 1964) [= Constrictor constrictor nebulosus Lazell, 1964] (Dominican clouded boa). Parasite: Porocephalus dominicana (females in lungs).

Candoia carinata (Schneider, 1801) [= Engyrus carinatus (Schneider, 1801)] (carinata; New Guinea tree boa; Pacific boa). Parasite: Diesingia sp.

Epicrates angulifer Bibron, 1843 [= Boa brachyura] (Cuban boa; pale-headed tree-boa). Parasite: Porocephalus clavatus (in lungs).

Epicrates cenchria cenchria (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Epicrates cenchria (Linnaeus, 1758); Epicrates cenchris (Linnaeus, 1758) (erroneous spelling)] (Brazilian rainbow boa; "boa arco-iris"). Parasite: Porocephalus clavatus (in lungs).

Epicrates crassus (Cope, 1862) (Paraguayan rainbow boa; "salamanta"). Parasite: Porocephalus clavatus (in lungs).

Eunectes murinus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Eunectes scytale (Linnaeus, 1758)] (green anaconda; sucuri; water boa). Parasites: Porocephalus clavatus (larva); P. crotali (in lung); Sambonia wardi; Leiperia gracilis; Sebekia oxycephalum (larva).


Aspidites melanocephalus (Krefft, 1864) (black-headed python). Parasite: Waddycephalus longicaudata (adults).

Broghammerus reticulatus (Schneider, 1801) [= Python reticulatus (Schneider, 1801)] (Asiatic reticulated python; netted snake; regal python). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adult); A. moniliformis heymonsi (adults in lung); A. moniliformis moniliformis (adult in lungs); Cubirea pomeroyi; Raillietiella orientalis (in body cavity).

Morelia amethistina (Schneider, 1801) [= Liasis amethistinus (Schneider, 1801); Python amethystinus Schneider, 1801] (amethystine; scrub python). Parasites: Armillifer australis (adults in lung); A. mazzai (females); A. moniliformis moniliformis; Elenia liasisi (in body cavity).

Morelia spilota spilota (Lacépède, 1804) [= Morelia spilota (Lacépède, 1804); Python spilotes (Lacépède, 1804)] (carpet python; diamond python). Parasites: Armillifer australis (in lung); Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis; Kiricephalus coarctatus; K. pattoni.

Morelia spilota variegata Gray, 1842 [= Morelia spilotes variegata Gray, 1842] (carpet python). Parasites: Waddycephalus porphyriacus (adults); Waddycephalus sp. (female in lung).

Morelia viridis (Schlegel, 1872) [= Chondropython viridis (Schlegel, 1872)] (Papua green tree python). Parasite: Armillifer arborealis (adults).

Python bivittatus Kuhl, 1820 [= Python bivittata Kuhl, 1820] (Burmese python). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus.

Python molurus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Python tigris Daudin, 1803] (Indian python). Parasites: Armillifer agkistrodontis (adult); A. armillatus (adult); A. moniliformis moniliformis (adult males in lungs); A. yoshidai; Porocephalus crotali (adults in lungs and body cavity); Raillietiella orientalis.

Python regius (Shaw, 1802) (ball python; royal python). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adults in lungs); Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Python sebae (Gmelin, 1788) (African rock python; west African python). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adults in lungs); A. armillatus intermedius; A. moniliformis moniliformis (adults in lung).

Python sebae natalensis A. Smith, 1833 [= Python natalensis A. Smith, 1833] (African rock python). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus.


Plectrurus perrotetii Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Nilgiri burrowing snake; Perrotet's shiedtail snake). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (in flesh and viscera).


Pseudoferania polylepis (Fischer, 1886) [= Enhydris polylepis (Fischer, 1886)] (Macleay's water snake; smooth water snake). Parasite: Armillifer mazzai (females).


Bogertophis subocularis (Brown, 1901) [= Elaphe subocularis Brown, 1901] (trans-pecos rat snake). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Boiga irregularis (Bechstein, 1802) [= Dipsadomorphus irregularis (Bechstein, 1802)]. (brown cat snake; brown tree-snake). Parasites: Armillifer aborealis; Kiricephalus tortus (adults).

Lampropeltis getula (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Lampropeltis getulus (Linnaeus, 1766); Lampropeltis getulus floridana Blanchard, 1919; Ophibolus getulus Linnaeus, 1766; Ophibolus getula Linnaeus, 1766; Ophilobus [sic] (common kingsnake; Florida kingsnake; chain kingsnake; common kingsnake; eastern kingsnake). Parasites: Kiricephalus coarctatus (larvae, in lungs); Raillietiella bicaudata (adults).


Boaedon lineatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 [= Boaedon lineatus lineatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854] (striped house snake). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus; Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Boaedon olivaceus (Duméril, 1856) (olive house snake; striped house snake). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Psammodynastes pulverulentus pulverulentus (H. Boie, 1827) [= Psammodynastes pulverulentus (H. Boie, 1827)] (common mock viper). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.


Polemon gabonsensis (A.H.A. Duméril, 1856) [= Miodon gabonenses A.H.A. Duméril, 1856] (Gaboon snake-eater). Parasite: Kiricephalus gabonensis.


Bothrophthalmus lineatus (Peters, 1863) (red-black striped snake). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adults); Raillietiella boulengeri.

Gonionotophis capensis (Smith, 1847) [= Simocephalus capensis (Smith, 1847)] (Cape file snake). Parasites: Porocephalus stilesi (adults in stomach); P. subuliferum.

Gonionotophis poensis (Smith, 1849) [= Mehelya poensis (Smith, 1847)] (western forest file snake). Parasites: Porocephalus subuliferum (young stages and adults); Raillietiella boulengeri.

Gonionotophis savorgnani (Mocquard, 1881) [= Mehelya lamani Schmidt, 1923; Mehelya savorgnani (Mocquard, 1887)]. Parasites: Porocephalus subuliferum (adults); Raillietiella boulengeri (larvae).

Lycophidion capense capense (Smith, 1831) [= Lycophidion capense (Smith, 1831); Lycophidium capense capense (Smith, 1831)] (Cape wolf snake; spotted wolf snake). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri.


Malpolon monpessulana (Hermann, 1804) [= Coelopeltis monspessulana (Hermann, 1804)] (Montpellier snake). Parasite: Raillietiella spiralis (adult in lung).

Mimophis mahfalensis (Grandidier, 1867) (big-eyed snake). Parasite: Raillietiella belohaensis (in lungs).

Psammophis lineatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) [= Dromophis lineatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854)] (lined olympic snake; striped swamp snake). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Psammophis phillipsi (Hallowell, 1844) [= Psammophis sibilans phillipsi (Hallowell, 1844)] (olive grass racer; Phillip's sand snake). Parasites: Cubirea annulata; Raillietiella boulengeri.

Psammophis sibilans (Linnaeus, 1758) (hissing sand-snake; striped sand snake). Parasites: Cubirea annulata; Porocephalus subuliferum (larvae); Raillietiella boulengeri (larvae and adults); R. boulengeri spiralis (adults).

Psammophylax rhombeatus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Psammophylax tritaeniatus rhombeatus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (rhombic skaapstecker; spotted skaapstecker). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (adult).

Psammophylax tritaeniatus tritaeniatus Günther, 1868 [= Psammophylax tritaeniatus Günther, 1868] (striped skaapstecker). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri.

Psammophylax variabilis variabilis (Günther, 1893) [= Psammophylax tritaeniatus variabilis (Günther, 1893)] (grey-bellied grass snake; grey-bellied skaapstekker). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Rhamphiophis Peters, 1854 sp. (a beaked snake). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri.


Leioheterodon madagascariensis (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) (Malagasy giant hognose snake). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (in lungs); Raillietiella agcoi (in lungs).

Leioheterodon modestus (Günther, 1863) (Malagasy giant hognose). Parasites: Kiricephalus pattoni (young stages); Raillietiella chamaeleonis (male in air sacs).

Liophidium vaillanti (Mocquard, 1901) (bright snake, a Malagasy colubrid). Parasite: Raillietiella madagascariensis (in lungs).

Madagascarophis colubrinus colubrinus (Schlegel, 1837) [= Madagascarophis colubrina (Schlegel, 1837)] (Malagasy cat-eyed snake). Parasites: Raillietiella agcoi (in air sacs); R. ampanihyensis (males and females in air sacs).


Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 (northern copperhead snake). Parasite: Porocephalus sp.

Agkistrodon piscivorus (Lacépède, 1789) (cottonmouth snake; eastern cottonmouth; water moccassin). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (adults in lungs).

Bothropoides jararaca (Wied Niewied, 1824) [= Bothrops jararaca (Wied Niewied, 1824) ("jararaca"). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis; Porocephalus clavatus; P. crotali (in abdomen); Porocephalus sp.; P. stilesi (in lungs); Sambonia wardi (adults); Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).

Bothropoides matogrossensis (Amaral, 1925) (pitviper). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.

Bothrops Wagler, 1824 sp. Parasites: Porocephalus sp.; P. stilesi.

Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus, 1758) (barba amarilla; common lancehead; for-de-lance). Parasites: Kiricephalus sp.; Porocephalus stilesi (in lungs); Raillietiella furcocercum; R. ventili (in stomach).

Bothrops jararacussu Lacerda, 1884 ("jararacuçu"; "jararacussu"). Parasite: Porocephalus stilesi (in lungs).

Bothrops lanceolatus (Bonnaterre, 1790) [= Lachesis lanceolatus (Lacépède, 1789)] (rat-tailed serpent; rat-tailed pit-viper). Parasites: Leiperia gracilis; Porocephalus crotali (in lungs); P. stilesi (adult).

Calloselasma rhodostoma (Kuhl, 1824) [= Agkistrodon rhodostoma (Boie, 1827); Ancistrodon rhodostoma (Boie, 1827)] (Malayan pit viper). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Crotalus Linnaeus, 1758 sp. (a rattlesnake). Parasite: Porocephalus basiliscus.

Crotalus atrox Baird & Girard, 1853 [= Crotalus tortugensis Van Denburgh & Slevin, 1921] (American rattlesnake; Texas diamond-back; western diamond backed rattlesnake; Tortuga Island diamond rattlesnake). Parasites: Porocephalus crotali (adults, development in lungs and tracheae); P. tortugensis; Raillietiella furcocercum.

Crotalus catalinensis Cliff, 1954 (rattleless rattlesnake; Catalina Island rattlesnake). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali.

Crotalus durissus durissus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Crotalus adamanteus Palisot de Beauvois, 1799; Crotalus durissus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (Aruba Island rattlesnake; cascavel rattlesnake; eastern diamond- back rattlesnake; South American rattler; South American rattlesnake; tropical rattlesnake; unicolor; uracoan rattlesnake; vegrandis; "cascavel"). Parasites: Porocephalus crotali (in lungs and tracheae); P. furcocerca (in stomach); Sebekia oxycephalum.

Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768) [= Crotalus terrificus Laurenti, 1768] (dog-faced rattlesnake). Parasites: Cephalobaena tetrapoda (in lungs); Porocephalus crotali (adults in lung and tracheae); Raillietiella furcocercum; Sambonia wardi.

Crotalus horridus Linnaeus, 1758 (cane-brake rattlesnake; common rattlesnake; timber rattlesnake; banded rattlesnake). Parasites: Porocephalus crotali (adults in abdomen, lungs, and tracheae); Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae); Sambonia wardi.

Crotalus ruber Cope, 1892 (red diamond rattlesnake; red rattlesnake). Parasite: Raillietiella crotali.

Deinagkistrodon acutus (Günther, 1888) [= Agkistrodon acutus (Günther, 1888); Ancistrodon acutus (Günther, 1888)] (Chinese moccasin; long-nosed pit viper). Parasites: Armillifer agkistrodontis (adults in lungs); Raillietiella orientalis.

Rhinocerophis alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) [= Bothrops alternata Duméril & Bibron, 1854; Bothrops alternatus Duméril & Bibron, 1854; Lachesis alternatus (Duméril & Bibron, 1854)] (urutu). Parasite: Porocephalus stilesi.

Gloydius brevicaudus brevicaudus (Stejneger, 1907) [= Agkistrodon blomhoffi var. brevicaudus Stejneger, 1907] (Japanese mamushi). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Lachesis Daudin, 1803 sp. Parasites: Cephalobaena tetrapoda (adult); Porocephalus clavatus (eggs and embryo); P. stilesi; Raillietiella furcocercum (in lungs).

Lachesis muta (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Lachesis mutus (Linnaeus, 1766)] (South American bushmaster; "surucucu"). Parasites: Porocephalus crotali; P. stilesi (adults in lungs).

Ovophis okinavensis (Boulenger, 1892) [= Trimeresurus okinavensis Boulenger, 1892] (himehabu; Okinawa pitviper; Ryukuy Island pit viper). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Protobothrops flavoviridis (Hallowell, 1861) [= Trimeresurus flavoviridis flavoviridis (Hallowell, 1861); Trimerosurus flavoviridis (Hallowell, 1861)] (habu). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Cantor, 1839) [= Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus (Cantor, 1839) (brown-spotted pitviper; pointed-scaled pitviper). Parasite: Railietiella orientalis.

Rhinocerophis alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) [= Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; Lachesis alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854)] (crossed viper; "urutu"). Parasites: Bothropseiella bicornuta (in lung); Cephalobaena tetrapoda (adults in lungs); Porocephalus stilesi (in lungs); Raillietiella sp.

Trimeresurus gramineus (Shaw, 1802) (common bamboo pitviper). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus bicolor Boulenger, 1890 (mangrove viper; Schultze's pitviper; shore pit viper). Parasite: Kiricephalus pattoni (immature forms in body cavity).


Atheris chlorechis (Pel, 1851) [= Atheris chloroechis (Pel, 1851)] (west Africa tree viper; west African leaf viper; western bush viper). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri.

Bitis arietans (Merrem, 1820) (common puff adder). Parasite: Raillietiella boulengeri.

Bitis gabonica (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) (African viper; Gaboon puff-adder). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adults in lungs); A. grandis (adults); Cubirea annulata (adults); Kiricephalus coarctatus; Linguatula serrata (causing pentastomiasis); Porocephalus stilesi (adults); P. subuliferum (young stages in abdominal muscles); Raillietiella boulengeri (adults in in peritoneal cavity).

Bitis rhinoceros (Schlegel, 1855) [= Bitis gabonica rhinoceros (Schlegel, 1855)] (west Africa Gaboon viper). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (adult infestation).

Bitis nasicornis (Shaw, 1802) (horned puff adder; rhinoceros adder; rhinoceros viper). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adults in lungs); A. grandis (adults in lungs); Cubirea annulata (adults); Porocephalus subuliferum; Raillietiella boulengeri (adults).

Causus rhombeatus (Lichtenstein, 1823) [= Bitis rhombeatus Lichtenstein, 1823] (Cape night adler; Cape viper; common night-adler; rhombic night-adler; demon night adler). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus; Porocephalus clavatus; P. subuliferum (young stages); Raillietiella boulengeri (adults and larvae).

Cerastes cerastes (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Cerastes cornutus Boulenger, 1896] (African horned desert viper; desert horned viper). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (adult); A. grandis; Kiricephalus coarctatus.

Daboia russelii (Shaw & Nodder, 1797) [= Vipera russelii (Shaw & Nodder, 1797)] (Indian Russell's viper; chain viper; Russell's viper). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Daboia siamensis (M.A. Smith, 1917) [= Vipera russelii formosensis Klemer, 1963] (eastern Russell's viper; Siamese Russell's viper). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Echis carinatus carinatus (Schneider, 1801) [= Echis carinatus (Schneider, 1801)] (Indian saw-scaled viper; little Indian viper). Parasite: Raillietiella orientalis.

Vipera berus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Vipera serus (Linnaeus, 1758) (erroneous spelling)] (common European adder; northern viper). Parasite: Porocephlaus clavatus (larvae).

Vipera palaestinae Werner, 1938 (Palestine viper). Parasite: Raillietiella sp.


Amphisbaena Linnaeus, 1758 sp. (a worm lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella gigliolii (in lungs).

Amphisbaena alba Linnaeus, 1758 [= Amphisbaena flavescens Houttuyn, 1787] (giant amphisbaena; red worm lizard; white amphisbaena; "cobra-de-duas-cabeças"). Parasites: Pentastomida sp. (life cycle, including a beetle inquiline); Raillietiella furcocercum; R. gigliolii (adults in lungs).

Amphisbaena vermicularis Wagler, 1924 (Wagler's worm lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella gigliolii (in lungs).

Monopeltis schoutedeni Witte, 1933 (middle Congo worm lizard). Parasite: Raillietiella schoutedeni (adults in lung).

Aves; (Species were validated, in addition to the general sources indicated above, with AviBase, 2013, American Ornitologists Union, 2013, IUCN - The International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2013, and Birdlife International, 2013).


Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) ("arau-comum"; common guillemot; common murre; thin-billed murre). Parasites: Reighardia lomviae; R. sterna (infection of juvenile and adult hosts).


Chroicocephalus philadelphia (Ord, 1815) [= Larus philadelphia Ord, 1815] (Bonaparte's gull; Dominican gull; "gaivota de Bonaparte"). Parasite: Reighardia sternae.

Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763 (silver sea-gull; European herring gull; "gaivota-argêntea"). Parasite: Reighardia sternae (in air sacs; larva causing autoinfection).

Larus canus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Larus glaucus Bruch, 1853] (burgemaster; glaucous gull; mew gull; common gull; "gaivota-parda"). Parasite: Reighardia sternae (in air sacs).

Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 (Dominican gull; kelp gull; "gaivota"). Parasite: Reighardia sternae.

Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 ("gaivota-hiperbórea"; glaucous gull). Parasite: Reighardia sternae.

Larus marinus Linnaeus, 1758 ("Alcatraz-comum"; great black-headed gull). Parasite: Reighardia sternae (in air sacs).

Larus schistisagus Stejneger, 1884 (slaty-backed gull). Parasite: Reighardia sternae.

Pagophila eburnea Phipps, 1774 ("gaivota-marfim"; ivory gull). Parasite: Reighardia sternae.

Sterna hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 [= Sterna fluviatilus Naumann, 1819] (a marine tern: common tern; "andorinha-do-mar-comum"). Parasite: Reighardia sternae (nymphs in lungs, air sacs, and hepatic portal blood).

Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, 1763 [= Sterna macrura Naumann, 1819)] ("andorinha-do-mar-ártica"; silver tern). Parasite: Reighardia sternae.


Ardea cocoi (Linnaeus, 1766) (blue heron; cocoi heron). Parasite: Leiperia gracilis (larva).


Aegypius monachus (Linnaeus, 1766) (black vulture). Parasite: Hispania vulturis (in abdominal sacs).

Gyps bengalensis (Gmelin, 1788) (Indian white-backed vulture; white-rumped vulture). Parasite: Raillietiella tracheae (in tracheae).

Pernis apivorus (Linnaeus, 1758) ("bútio-vespeiro"; honey buzzard). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larva).


Grus virgo (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Anthropoides virgo Linnaeus, 1758] (demoisille crane, a gruid bird; "groupequeno"). Parasites: Cubirea annulata (larva); C. pomeroyi.


Porphyrio Brisson, 1760 sp. (a water hen, or gallinule). Parasites: Armillifer grandis (larvae); Cubirea annulata (nymphs).


Bubo africanus (Temminck, 1821) (spotted eagle-owl; "bufo africano"). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Mammalia; (Species were further validated, in addition to the general sources indicated above, with Wilson & Reeder, 2005).


Oryzoryctes hova A. Grandidier, 1870 [= Oryzoryctes talpoides G. Grandidier & Petit, 1930] (mole-like rice tenrec). Parasite: Gigliolella brumpti (larvae).


Hemicentetes semispinosus G. Cuvier, 1798 (lowland streaked tenrec). Parasite: Gigliolella brumpti (larvae).

Setifer setosus (Schreiber, 1778) [= Ericulus setosus (Schreiber, 1778)] (greater hedgehog tenrec). Parasite: Gigliolella brumpti (nymph encysted in liver and lungs).

Tenrec ecaudatus (Schreber, 1778) (tail-less tenrec). Parasite: Gigliolella brumpti (encysted larvae).


Antilocapra americana americana (Ord, 1815) [= Antilocapra americana (Ord, 1815); Capra americana Ord, 1815] (American antelope; pronghorn antelope; Rocky Mountain goat). Parasite: Linguatula serrata.


Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766) [= Bubalus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)] (hartebeest). Parasites: Linguatula serrata (young form); Neolinguatula nuttali (larva).

Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii Günther, 1880 (bubla antelope; Coke's hartebeest; grassland antelope). Parasites: Linguatula multiannulata; L. serrata (nymphs).

Connochaetes taurinus taurinus (Burchell, 1824) [= Connochaetes taurinus (Burchell, 1824)] (blue wildbeest; bridled gnu). Parasites: Linguatula serrata; Neolinguatula nuttalli.

Damaliscus korrigum korrigum (Ogilby, 1836) (korrigan; tiang; topi). Parasite: Linguatula serrata.


Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa (Guldenstaedt, 1778) [= Gazella yarkandensis Blanford, 1875] (goitered gazelle). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (larva).

Neotragus pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1758) (royal antelope). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus.

Procapra gutturosa (Pallas, 1777) [= Gazella gutturosa Pallas, 1777)] (Mongolian gazelle). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (larvae).


Boselaphus tragocamelus (Pallas, 1766) (blue antelope; nilgai). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (larvae).

Bos taurus taurus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758] (aurochs; bull; cow; domestic ox). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larvae causing porocephalosis); Linguatula serrata (larvae and adults in hepatic lymph glands and liver).

Bubalus bubalis bubalis (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Antilope bubalis Pallas, 1767; Bubalus buffalus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (bubale; river buffalo; water buffalo). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larvae); Linguatula serrata (nymphs); Neolinguatula nuttalli (in lungs and intestine, some encysted beneath pleura).

Syncerus caffer caffer (Sparrman, 1779) (African buffalo; caffer mongoose; Cape gray mongoose). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larvae); Linguatula multiannulata; L. serrata.

Tragelaphus scriptus scriptus (Pallas, 1766) [= Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas, 1766)] (bushbuck; harnessed antelope; kiwell). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (young forms); Linguatula recurvata (larvae); Porocephalus sp. (larvae).

Tragelaphus strepsiceros strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766) [= Tragelaphus strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766)] (greater kudu). Parasite: Neolinguatula nuttalli.


Capra hircus hircus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Capra hircus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (Alpine cross goat; domestic goat; wild goat). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (larvae and adults in abdonomal cavity, causing visceral linguatulosis).

Ovis aries aries Linnaeus, 1758 [= Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758] (domestic sheep; red sheep). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs and adult in abdomen and lymph nodes).


Cephalophus leucogaster leucogaster Gray, 1873 [= Cephalophus leucogaster Gray, 1873] (white-bellied dukker). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in viscera).

Cephalophus weynsi weynsi Thomas, 1901 [= Cephalophus weynsi Thomas, 1901] (Weyn's duiker). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus.

Philantomba monticola monticola (Thunberg, 1789) [= Cephalophus caeruleus H. Smith, 1827; Cephalophus monticola Thunberg, 1789; Cephalophus pygmaeus] (Cape guevi; South African blue duiker). Parasites: Linguatula serrata (nymphs); Neolinguatula nuttalli (juveniles in abdominal cavity).


Hippotragus equinus equinus É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803 [= Hippotragus equinus É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803] (roan antelope). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in liver).

Oryx beisa beisa (Rüppel, 1835) (oryx) [= Oryx beisa (Rüppel, 1835)]. Parasite: Linguatula serrata.


Redunca arundinum (Boddaert, 1785) [= Cervicapra arundinum Boddaert, 1785; Eleotragus arundinum (Boddaert, 1785)] (South African reedbuck; southern reedbuck). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs).


Camelus bactrianus bactrianus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Camelus bactrianus Linnaeus, 1758] (bactrian camel; two-humped camel). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs forming red nodule in lung).

Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758 (Arabian camel; dromedary; one-humped camel). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs in intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes).


Capreolus capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (European roe deer; roebuck). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs).

Rangifer tarandus tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (caribou; mountain reindeer; wild reindeer). Parasites: Linguatula arctica (in nasal passages; sinus gland); L. serrata.


Dama dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758)] (European fallow-deer). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs).


Phacochoerus F. Cuvier, 1826 sp. Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Phacochoerus africanus africanus (Gmelin, 1788) [= Phacochoerus africanus (Gmelin, 1788)] (common whart-hog). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young stages).

Phacochoerus aethiopicus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766) [= Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766)] (desert wharthog). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larva); Neolinguatula nuttalli.


Potamochoerus porcus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Potamochoerus penicillatus (Schinz, 1848)] (red river hog, a bush pig). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in viscera and mesenterium).


Sus scrofa scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 [= Sus domesticus Erxleben, 1777; Sus scrofa domesticus Erxleben, 1777] (domestic pig; wild boar; "javali"). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larvae); A. moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs); Linguatula serrata (nymphs in liver, causing porocephalosis).


Pecari tajacu tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Dicotyles tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758); Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758)] (collared peccary; "queixada"). Parasites: Linguatula recurvata (juvenile); L. serrata (nymphs).

Tayassu pecari pecari (Link, 1795) [= Dicotyles labiatus Cuvier, 1817; Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795)] (white-lipped peccary; "porco-do-mato"). Parasite: Linguatula recurvata (larvae in heart).


Hyemoschus aquaticus (Ogilby, 1841) (water chevrotain; fanged deer). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in intestine).

Tragulus javanicus (Osbeck, 1765) (Java mouse deer; lesser mouse deer). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (larvae in stomach).


Canis Linnaeus, 1758 sp. (a dog). Parasites: Linguatula serrata; Porocephalus crotali (nymphs causing massive visceral pentastomiasis).

Canis adustus adustus Sundevall, 1847 [= Canis adustus Sundevall, 1847] (side-striped jackal; silver chacal). Parasite: Linguatula serrata serengetiana.

Canis lupus dingo Meyer, 1793 [= Canis dingo Meyer, 1793] (dingo; domestic dog; wild dog). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (adults in nasal sinus).

Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 [= Canis domesticus Linnaeus, 1758; Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758; Canis familiaris dingo Linnaeus, 1758; Canis (Canis) familiaris Linnaeus, 1758] (bull terrier bitch; dog; domestic dog; European dog; hunting dog; mongrel dog; schnauzer dog; stray dog; street dog; urban pound dogs). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs); A. moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs); Linguatula serrata (larva; adults in nasal cavity and ear); L. serrata serengetiana.

Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758] (wolf). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (adult in pharynx).

Canis mesomelas mesomelas (Schreber, 1778) [= Canis mesomelas (Schreber, 1778)] (black-backed jackal; silver-backed jackal). Parasite: Linguatula serrata serengetiana.

Canis mesomelas schmidti Noack, 1897 [= Thos mesomelas elongae Heller, 1914] (black-backed jackal; wild dog). Parasite: Linguatula serrata serengetiana.

Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) [= Canis jubatus Desmarest, 1820] (maned wolf). Parasite: Linguatula serrata.

Lycaon pictus lupinus Thomas, 1902 (African wild dog). Parasite: Lingutula serrata serengetiana.

Lycalopex culpaeus culpaeus (Molina, 1782) [= Dusicyon culpaeus (Molina, 1782)] (culpeo fox; South American red fox). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs).

Vulpes vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Canis vulpes Linnaeus, 1758; Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758)] (common fox; red fox). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (larvae and adults in intestine).


Mephitis mephitis mephitis (Schreber, 1776) [= Mephitis mephitis (Schreber, 1776)] (striped skunk). Parasite: Sebekia proboscideum (larva).


Aonyx cinerea cinerea (Illiger, 1815) [= Aonyx leptonyx (Horsfield, 1823)] (Oriental small-clawed otter). Parasite: Armillatus moniliformis moniliformis (larvae).

Hydrictis maculicollis (Lichtenstein, 1823) [= Lutra maculipennis Lichtenstein, 1823 (erroneous spelling)] ("lontra"; spotted-necked otter). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Lutra lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) nair F.G. Cuvier, 1823 [= Lutra nair F.G. Cuvier, 1823] (Indian otter). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs); A. moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs in peritonela cavity).

Lutrogale perspicillata perspicillata (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1826) [= Lutra perspicillata Geoffroy, 1826] (smooth-coated otter). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis.

Pteronura brasiliensis brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788) [= Lutra brasiliensis Gmelin, 1788; Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788)] (giant otter; "ariranha"). Parasites: Porocephalus sp. (larvae); P. crotali (larvae); Sebekia oxycephalum (larvae).


Mellivora capensis cottoni Lydekker, 1906 [= Mellivora sagulata Hollister, 1910] (honey badger). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in stomach).


Nasua narica narica (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Nasua narica (Linnaeus, 1766)] (white-nosed coati; "quati"). Parasites: Porocephalus crotali; Sebekia oxycephalum.

Procyon cancrivorus cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798) [= Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798)] (a mammal: crab-eating racoon; "guaxinim"; "mão pelada"). Parasites: Linguatula serrata; Porocephalus crotali (larvae in diaphragm); Sebekia oxycephalum.

Procyon lotor lotor (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758)] (raccoon). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali.


Galidictis fasciata fasciata (Gmelin, 1788) [= Ariela fasciata Gmelin, 1788] (banded mongoose; broad-striped Malagasy mongoose). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).


Acinonyx jubatus jubatus (Schreber, 1775) [= Acinonyx guttatus (Hermann, 1804); Cynailurus guttatus Hermann, 1804] (cheetah; guepardo). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Felis domesticus Erxleben, 1777; Felis siamensis Trouessart, 1904] (domestic cat). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (nymphal pentastomiasis); A. moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs); Kiricephalus pattoni (immature forms in liver; nymph in lungs); Linguatula serrata (nymphs in liver); Porocephalus siamensis (larvae).

Felis silvestris Schreber, 1777 (wildcat). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larva); Linguatula serrata (larva).

Leptailurus serval serval Schreber, 1776 [= Felis serval (Schreber, 1776)] (chat serval; serval; walking maru). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young specimens).

Prionailurus planiceps (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827) [= Felis planiceps (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)] (flat-headed cat). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (larvae).

Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833) [= Felis viverrina Bennett, 1833] (fishing cat). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (larvae).


Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Felis leo Linnaeus, 1758] (lion). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (young stages); Linguatula serrata (in pharynx); Neolinguatula nuttalli (adults); Porocephalus crotali (in body cavity).

Panthera onca onca (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Felis onca Linnaeus, 1758] (jaguar; "onça-pintada"). Parasite: Linguatula recurvata (adults in frontal sinuses and tracheae).

Panthera pardus pardus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758; Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (leopard). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs); A. moniliformis (nymphs); Neolinguatula nuttalli; Porocephalus crotali (in lungs, body cavity, and spleen).

Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758] (tiger). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs); A. moniliformis (juveniles).


Atilax paludinosus paludinosus (G. Cuvier, 1829) [= Atilax paludinosus (G. Cuvier, 1829); Mungos paludinosus G. Cuvier, 1829] (marsh mongoose; water mongoose). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Bdeogale crassicaudata puisa Peters, 1852 [= Bdeogale puisa Peters, 1852] (puisa; bushy-tailed mongoose). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young forms).

Crossarchus obscurus F.G. Cuvier, 1825 (common cusimanse; long-nosed cusimanse). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Dologale dybowskii (Pousargues, 1893) (Pousargues' mongoose). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs in abdominal cavity).

Herpestes Illiger, 1811 sp. (creeping thief). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in intestine).

Herpestes ichneumon ichneumon (Linnaeus, 1758) cafra (Gmelin, 1788) [= Herpestes cafer Gmelin, 1788; Mungos cafer (Gmelin, 1788)] (Egyptian mongoose). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Herpestes javanicus javanicus (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818) [= Mungos javanicus É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818; Mungos galera] (mungo; small Asian mongoose). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in liver, mesentery, and lung); Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (young stage).

Herpestes naso De Winton, 1901 [= Herpestes urva naso De Winton, 1901] (crab-eating mongoose; long-nosed mongoose). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in liver, mesentery, spleen, and free in body).

Ichneumia albicauda albicauda G. Cuvier, 1829 [= Herpestes albicaudus (G. Cuvier, 1829); Ichneumia albicauda G. Cuvier, 1829] (white-tailed mongoose). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young stages).

Mungos É. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire & Cuvier, 1795 sp. Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Mungos mungo mungo (Gmelin, 1788) [= Crossarchus fasciatus Desmarest, 1820] (African banded mongoose; banded ichneumon; broad-banded cusimanse). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in mesenteries).


Crocuta crocuta (Erxleben, 1777) [= Crocuta crocuta crocuta (Erxleben, 1777)] (spotted hyena). Parasite: Linguatula multiannulata.

Hyaena brunnea Thunberg, 1820 (brown hyena). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (nymph).

Proteles cristata (Sparrmann, 1783) [= Protelis cristatus (Sparrmann, 1783)] (aardwolf). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in in mesentery); A. moniliformis moniliformis (larvae).


Nandinia binotata binotata Gray, 1830 [= Nandinia binotata Gray, 1830] (African palm civet). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in coelomic cavity).


Arctictis binturong binturong (Raffles, 1821) [= Arctictis binturong (Raffles, 1821)] (Asian bear cat; binturong). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs).

Paradoxurus hermaphrodites hermaphrodites Pallas, 1777 [= Paradoxurus hermaphrodites Pallas, 1777] (Asian palm civet). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus.

Paradoxurus hermaphrodites philippinensis Jourdan, 1837 [= Paradoxurus phillippensis Jourdan, 1837 (erroneous spelling); Paradoxurus philippinensis Jourdan, 1837] (Asian palm civet; native cat; palm civet cat). Parasites: Armillifer moliliformis heymonsi (in lungs); A. moniliformis moniliformis (young forms).


Genetta G. Cuvier, 1816 sp. Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Genetta genetta genetta (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Genetta senegalensis J.B. Fischer, 1829)] (common genet). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larva).

Genetta pardina I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1832 (pardine genet). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Viverra civettina (Blyth, 1862) [= Civettictis civetta [sic] Schreber, 1776] (African civet cat; Malabar large-spotted cat). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae inside and outside of gut).

Viverra zibetha zibetha Linnaeus, 1758 [= Viverra zibetha Linnaeus, 1758] (common Indian civet). Parasite: Armillatus moniliformis moniliformis (larvae).

"Viverricula malaccensis Gmelin, 1788" (Indian civet; small civet cat). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs). Remarks: The vernacular name small Indian civet keys down to Viverricula indica (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803), but the species "Viverricola malaccensis" Gmelin, 1788 does not appear in the synonymy of this species (Wilson & Reed, 2005).


Melursus ursinus ursinus (Shaw, 1971) [= Melursus ursinus (Shaw, 1971)] (sloth bear). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (adult; nymph in liver).


Phacoena phacoena phacoena (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Phacoena phacoena (Linnaeus, 1758)] (North Atlantic harbour porpoise). Parasite: Reighardia sternae.


Hipposideros cyclops Temminck, 1853 (cyclops leaf-nosed bat; roundleaf bat). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).


Phyllostomus discolor discolor Wagner, 1843 [= Phyllostoma discolor (Wagner, 1843)] (pale spear-nosed bat; particoloured javelin-bat). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (larvae in stomach).


Eidolon helvum helvum (Kerr, 1792) [= Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Eidolus helvum (Kerr, 1792) (erroneous spelling)] (a frugivorous bat). Parasite: Linguatula sp.


Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Dasypus niger Lichtenstein, 1818; Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758); Tatusia novemcincta Linnaeus, 1758] (nine-banded armadillo; peba-armadillo; "tatu-galinha"; "tatu-peba"). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (larvae in abdomen and liver).


Chaetophractus vellerosus vellerosus (Gray, 1865) [= Chaetophractus vellerosus (Gray, 1865)] (little hairy armadillo; screaming hairy armadillo). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (nymphs).


Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804) [= Tolypeutes mataco (Desmarest, 1804) (erroneous spelling)] (southern three-banded armadillo; "tatu-bola"). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (nymphs).


Dasykaluta rosamondae (Ride, 1964) (little red kaluta). Parasite: Waddycephalus sp. (nymphs encysted in abdomen).

Dasyurus É Geoffroy, 1796 sp. (a native cat). Parasite: Armillifer mazzai.

Dasyurus hallucatus Gould, 1842 [= Satanellus hallucatus (Gould, 1842)] (northern quoll). Parasites: Armillifer arborealis (adults and nymphs in liver, lung, and small intestine); Pentastomida sp. (larvae). Waddycephalus sp. (male from mesentery).


Parantechinus apicalis (Gray, 1842) (southern dibbler). Parasite: Waddycephalus sp. (nymphs).


Caluromys (Caluromys) philander philander (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758); Didelphis philander Linnaeus, 1758; Philander philander (Linnaeus, 1758)] (bare-tailed woolly opossum; philander opossum; "macura"). Parasites: Porocephalus clavatus (larva); P. crotali (larvae in intestine, liver, and abdominal cavity).


Chironectes minimus minimus (Zimmermann, 1780) [= Chironectes minimus (Zimmermann, 1780)] (water opossum; "cuica-d'agua"). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (larvae).

Delphinidae Gray, 1821 sp. (a dolphin). Parasite: Linguatula serrata.

Didelphis Linnaeus, 1758 sp. ("gambá", a marmoset or opossum). Parasite: Porocephalus clavatus (larvae).

Didelphis marsupialis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 [= Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758] (common opussum). Parasites: Linguatula serrata (nymphs); Porocephalus crotali (larvae).

Didelphis virginiana virginiana Kerr, 1792 [= Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792] (Virginian opossum). Parasites: Porocephalus clavatus (nymphs); P. crotali (nymphs).

Marmosa murina (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Didelphis murina Linnaeus, 1758; Marmosa murina parata Thomas, 1911] (common mouse opussum; Linnaeus' mouse opussum; marmosa; murine opossum). Parasites: Porocephalus clavatus; P. crotali (larvae in body cavity).

Micoureus paraguayanus travassosi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1936 [= Marmosa cinerea (Temminck, 1824)] (a pouchless marsupial: Tate's woolly mouse opussum; "cuíca"). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (larvae).

Philander opossum opussum (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Philander opussum (Linnaeus, 1758)] (gray four-eyed opossum; "cuica"). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (larvae).


Petaurus breviceps breviceps (Waterhouse, 1838) [= Petaurus breviceps (Waterhouse, 1838)] (sugar glider). Parasite: Yelirella petauri (in lungs and nasal sinus).


Atelerix albiventris (Wagner, 1841) [= Atelerix pruneri oweni (Setzer, 1953)] (four-toed hedgehog). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (nymph in body cavity).

Atelerix frontalis frontalis (A. Smith, 1831) [= Antechinus frontalis A. Smith, 1831] (southern African hedgehog, an insectivore). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Erinaceus Linnaeus, 1758 sp. Parasite: Linguatula serrata.

Hemiechinus auritus auritus (Gmelin, 1770) [= Erinaceus auritus Gmelin, 1770; Hemiechinus auritus (Gmelin, 1770)] (long-eared hedgehog). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus; Linguatula serrata (nymphs); L. sp. (nymph).

Paraechinus aethiopicus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg, 1832) [= Erinaceus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg, 1832)] (African hedgehog; desert hedgehog). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (larvae); Linguatula serrata (juveniles).


Lepus capensis capensis Linnaeus, 1758 [= Lepus capensis Linnaeus, 1758] (Cape hare; Egyptian hare). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (in pleural cavity, causing parasitosis).

Lepus (Eulagos) europaeus europaeus Pallas, 1778 [= Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778] (common hare; European hare). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs).

Lepus (? Eulagos) granatensis granatensis Rosenhauer, 1856 [= Lepus capensis granatensis Rosehauer, 1856; Lepus granatensis granatensis Rosenhauer, 1856] (common hare). Parasite: Linguatula serrata.

Lepus (Lepus) timidus timidus Linnaeus, 1758 (blue hare; mountain hare). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (causing linguatulosis).

Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Lepus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758; Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (common rabbit; European rabbit). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs in lungs).

Sylvilagus (Sylvilagus) floridanus floridanus (J.A. Allen, 1890) [= Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen, 1890)] (cottontail rabbit; eastern cottontail). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs).


Macroscelides A. Smith, 1829 sp. (elephant shrew). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young stages).


Isoodon macrourus macrourus (Gould, 1842) [= Isoodon macrourus (Gould, 1842)] (northern brown bandicoot). Parasite: Armillifer arborealis (in liver and lung).

Perameles nasuta É. Geoffroy, 1804 (long-nosed bandicoot). Parasite: Armillifer australis (nymph in oesophagus).


Equus asinus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Equus asinocaballus auct.] (ass; donkey; "jegue"; mule). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs and adults).

Equus caballus caballus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Equus caballus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (horse). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (juveniles and adult).


Tapirus indicus indicus (Desmarest, 1819) [= Tapirus indicus (Desmarest, 1819)] (Malayan tapir). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs).


Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) [= Midas chrysopygus Mikan, 1823; Mystax chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823)] (black lion tamarin; golden-rumped marmoset; yellow-tailed tamarin; "mico-leão-preto"). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (nymphs in lung).

Leonthopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766) (golden lion tamarin; "mico-leão-dourado"). Parasite: Porocephalus sp.

Saguinus Hoffmannsegg, 1807 sp. (a tamarin). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (larvae).

Saguinus mystax mystax (Spix, 1803) [= Saguinus mystax (Spix, 1803)] (moustached tamarin). Parasite: Porocephalus (causing infection).


Cebus capucinus Linnaeus (White-headed capucnin). Parasite: Armillifer.

"Cebus defassa" (a primate). Parasite: Neolinguatula nuttalli. Remarks: Not listed in Wilson & Reeder (2005).


Saimiri sciureus sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Callitrix sciurea (Linnaeus, 1758); Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (brown cappucin; common squirrel monkey). Parasites: Pentastomida sp.; Porocephalus clavatus (larvae); P. sp. (nymphs in brain); P. stilesi (nymph in brain).


Cercocebus atys atys (Audebert, 1797) [= Cercopithecus fuliginosus (É. Geoffroy, 1812; Erythrocebus fuliginosus (É. Geoffroy, 1812)] (sooty mangabey, an old world monkey). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young forms).

Cercopithecus albogularis albogularis (Sykes, 1831) [= Cercopithecus albogularis (Sykes, 1831)] (an African primate: Sykes'guenon; Syke's monkey). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Cercopithecus mona (Schreber, 1774) (mona monkey). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Cercopithecus nictitans nictitans (Linnaeus, 1766) (greater spot-nosed monkey). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus.

Chlorocebus aethiops Linnaeus, 1758 [= Cercopithecus aethiops (Linnaeus, 1758); Cercopithecus engythithia (Hermann, 1804)] (grivet; malbrouck monkey; tota; white-nosed monkey). Parasite: Armiliffer armillatus (larvae).

Chlorocebus cynosuros Scopoli 1786 [= Cercopithecus aethiops cynosuros Scopoli 1786] (grivet; malbrouck). Parasite: Armiliffer armillatus (larvae in mesenteries).

Chlorocebus sabaeus (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Cercopithecus callitrichus I. Geoffroy, 1851] (green guenon, green monkey, callithrix monkey). Parasites: Porocephalus stilesi (larva in lung); P. subulifer (young stages encysted in lung).

Chlorocebus tantulus tantulus (Ogilby, 1841) [= Cercopithecus pousarguei Mitchell, 1897; Cercopithecus tantulus Olgiby, 1841] (mispelling)] (an African primate: Pousargue's guenon; tantalus guenon; tantulus monkey). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Erythrocebus patas Schreber, 1775 [= Cercopithecus patas Schreber, 1775] (patas monkey). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young stages).

Macaca fascicularis fascicularis (Raffles, 1821) [= Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821); Macaca irus I. Geoffroy, 1826; Macacus cynomolgus (Schreiber, 1775] (crab-eating macaque; cynomolgus monkey; long-tailed macaque; macaque monkey; Philippine monkey; Sumatrian monkey). Parasites: Armillifer agkistrodontis (nymphs); A. armillatus (nymphs); A. moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs causing porocephalosis); Porocephalus sp.

Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) [= Macacus rhesus (Audebert, 1798)] (rhesus monkey). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs); A. moniliformis moniliformis (nymphs causing pentastomiasis).

Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Nemestrinus nemestrinus Linnaeus, 1766] (southern pig-tailed macacque). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (larvae).

Mandrillus sphinx (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Cynocephalus mormon Alströmer, 1766; Mandrillus maimon (Linnaeus, 1766)] (Guinea baboon; mandrill). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (juvenile).

Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) [= Papio cynocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766)] (yellow baboon). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Papio cynocephalus ibeanus Thomas, 1910 [= Periodictus ibeanus Thomas, 1910] (a prosimian loriid baboon: Bosman's potto; eastern potto). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs).

Papio papio (Desmarest, 1820) (Guinea baboon). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Papio ursinus ursinus (Kerr, 1792) [= Cynocephalus porcarius Boddaert, 1787; Papio porcari (Boddaert, 1787)] (chacma baboon). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).


Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (human; man). Parasites: Armillifer agkistrodontis; A. armillatus (porocephaliasis; larvae in abdomen, eye, and lacrimal caruncle; 3rd stage nymphs; encysted in small intestine; in lungs, liver intestine, and ovarium; causing pentastomiasis and itching); A. grandis (nymphs in lungs; causing visceral pentastomiasis); A. moniliformis moniliformis (nymph in liver, causing visceral pentastomiasis); Kiricephalus affinis (aetiology of human porocephalosis); Leiperia cincinnalis (nymphs); Linguatula serrata (larvae in anterior chamber of eye, lungs, spleen, liver, intestine and stools, causing hepatic granuloma; adults in lungs, causing halzoun or marrrara syndrome); Porocephalus crotali (nymphs causing human visceral pentastomiasis); P. subulifer (in African human; in hernial sac; ganglioma; causing infection and nymphal porocephalosis); P. taiwana (nymphs causing porocephalosis taiwana in humans); Sebekia sp. (nymph causing human dermatitis).

Pan troglodytes troglodytes (Blumenbach, 1775) [= Anthropopithecus troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775; Pan chimpanse Meyer, 1856; Pan satyrus (Linnaeus, 1758); Pan troglodytes (Blumenbach, 1775)] (common chimpanzee; robust chimpanzee). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (nymphs); Porocephalus sp. (larva).


Callicebus (Callicebus) caligatus (Wagner, 1842) [= Callicebus caligatus (Wagner, 1842)] (chestnub bellied titi, a South American primate). Parasites: Linguatula recurvata (larva); Linguatula sp. (larvae).


Pithecia irrorata Gray, 1842 (parauacu; rio Tapajós saki). Parasite: Porocephalus sp. (in lungs and aorta).


Cheirogaleus medius (É. Geoffroy, 1812) (lesser dwarf lemur). Parasite: Gigliolella brumpti (larvae).


Euoticus elegantulus (Le Conte, 1857) [= Galago elegantulus Conte, 1857] (southern needle-clawed bushbaby, a prosimian). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in coelom and intestine).

Galago senegalensis senegalensis É. Geoffroy, 1796 [= Galago senegalensis É. Geoffroy, 1796; Galago (Otolicnus) senegalensis É. Geoffroy, 1796] (lesser bush baby; lesser galago; Senegal bushbabie; Senegal galago). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (young stages); Porocephalus subuliferum (larvae).

Otolemur crassicaudatus crassicaudatus É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812 [= Galago crassicaudatus (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812)] (brown greater galago; thick-tailed bush baby; thick-tailed galago). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (encysted nymphs).


Loris tardigradus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Nycticebus tardigradus (Linnaeus, 1758); Paradoxurus tardigradus (Linnaeus, 1758)] (a lemurid: galago; red slender Loris; slow loris). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (larvae in intestine).

Nycticebus coucang coucang Boddaert, 1785 [= Nycticebus coucang Boddaert, 1785). (Bengal slow loris). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis (juveniles).

Periodicticus potto potto Müller, 1766 [= Periodicticus potto Müller, 1766] (potto). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus.


Anomalurus derbianus (Gray, 1842) [= Anomalurus fraseri (Waterhouse, 1843) (lord Derby's scaly-tailed squirrel). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae in coelomic cavity and stomach).


Abrocoma bennettii bennettii Waterhouse, 1837 [= Abrocoma bennettii Waterhouse, 1837] ( Bennett's chinchilla rat). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs).


Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Cavia cobaya Marcgrave, 1648; Cavia cutleri Bennett, 1835] (domesticated Guinea pig). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus; Linguatula serrata (larvae in lung); Porocephalus stilesi.


Hydrochoerus Brisson, 1762 sp. Parasite: Linguatula sp.


Atherurus africanus Gray, 1842 (African bush-tailed porcupine; African tufed-tailed porcupine). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (larvae).

Hystrix (Hystrix) cristata (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Hystrix cristata (Linnaeus, 1758)] (crested porcupine; European porcupine). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs in lung).


Octodon degus (Molina, 1782) [= Octodon degus degus (Molina, 1782)] (degu). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs).


Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840) [= Zygadontomys pixuna Moojen, 1943] (hairy tailed akodont). Parasites: not Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis [wrong identification]; Porocephalus crotali (nymphs causing larval pentastomiasis).

Oryzomys palustris (Harlan, 1837) (marsh oryzomys; rice rat). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali.

Oxymycterus rufus (Fischer, 1814) [= Hesperomys rufus Fischer, 1814] (rufous hocicudo). Parasite: Kiricephalus coarctatus.

Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829) [= Akodon fuliginosus (Wagner, 1845); Akodon nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829)] (blackish grass mouse; Brazilian field mouse; ebony akodont; "rato-do-mato"). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (larvae).

Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos (Wied Neuwied, 1821) [= Mus pyrrhorhinos Wied Newied, 1821; Oryzomys pyrrhorhinus (Wied Newied, 1821); Rhipidomys pyrrhorhinus (Wied Newied, 1821)] (Brazilian field mouse; red-nosed wiedomys). Parasite: Porocephalus crotali (larvae in liver).


Acomys (Acomys) cahirinus É. Geoffroy, 1803 [= Acomys cahirinus É. Geoffroy, 1803 ] (northeast African spiny mouse). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymph in liver).


Meriones (Pallasiomys) unguiculatus Milne-Edwards, 1867 [= Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards, 1867] (Mongolian jird; gerbil). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (nymphs).


Bandicota indica (Bechstein, 1800) [= Nesocia bandicota (Bechstein, 1800)] (greater bandicoot-rat). Parasite: Linguatula serrata (intermediate host).

Mus (Mus) musculus domesticus Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 [= Mus domesticus Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943] (west European mouse). Parasites: Linguatula serrata (larvae); Porocephalus crotali (larvae); P. stilesi (experimentally infected host).

Mus (Mus) musculus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 [= Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758] (east European house mouse). Parasites: Porocephalus clavatus; P. crotali.

Rattus G. Fischer, 1803 sp. Parasite: Porocephalus crotali.

Rattus leucopus (Gray, 1867) [= Rattus leucopus cooktownensis Tate, 1951] (Cape York rat; native rat). Parasites: Armillifer australis (encysted nymphs in body cavity); A. moniliformis moniliformis

Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) [= Mus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769] (brown Norwegian rat; brown rat; surmulot). Parasites: Linguatula serrata (nymph); Porocephalus stilesi (host infected experimentally).

Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Mus fuliginosus Bonaparte, 1833; Mus rattus Linnaeus, 1758] (black rat; roof rat). Parasites: Armillifer armillatus (young forms); Linguatula serrata (nymph); Porocephalus crotali (larvae in thoracic and abdominal cavity).

Rattus tiomanicus (Miller, 1900) (Malaysian field rat; wood rat). Parasite: Armillifer sp.


Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 (Gambian pouched rat; northern giant pouched rat). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young stages).


Xerus (Euxerus) erythrophus erythrophus Desmarest, 1817 [= Xerus erythrophus Desmarest, 1817] (red-footed ground-squirrel; striped ground-squirrel). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young stages).


Tupaia glis (Diard, 1820) (common tree shrew). Parasite: Armillifer moniliformis moniliformis.


Crocidura fuliginosa fuliginosa (Blyth, 1855) [= Crocidura fuliginosa (Blyth, 1855)] (sooty shrew; southern Asian shrew). Parasite: Porocephalus crocidurae (nymph in peritoneum).


Orycteropus afer aethiopicus Sundevall, 1843 [= Orycteropus aethiopicus Sundevall, 1843] (aardvark, an edentate). Parasite: Armillifer armillatus (young forms).