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Zoologische Mededelingen, 86 (December 2012)

Two new species of Cantharoctonus Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rhysipolinae) from Brazil

E.M. Shimbori 2, M.V. Yamada 1, A.M. Penteado-Dias 1

1.  Federal University of São Carlos, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, São Carlos, SP, Brazil


Keywords: taxonomy;description;new species;Cantharoctonus;Neotropical;Brazil.


Two new species of Cantharoctonus Viereck, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rhysipolinae) are described: Cantharoctonus jaragua spec. nov. and C. braziliensis spec. nov. The distribution range of the genus is extended to Brazil.

Duas novas espécies de Cantharoctonus Viereck, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rhysipolinae) são descritas: Cantharoctonus jaragua spec. nov. e Cantharoctonus braziliensis spec. nov., aumentando para seis o número de espécies vivas conhecidas. A distribuição do gênero é estendida para o Brasil


The genus Cantharoctonus Viereck, 1912, includes four nominal extant species from the New World: C. pomifoliellae (Ashmead 1889), C. stramineus Viereck, 1912, C. brunneus Hedqvist, 1963, C. canadensis Mason, 1968; and three fossil species from Germany: C. rottensis (Meunier 1915), C. oligocenensis Brues, 1933, and C. bruesii (Statz 1936) (Yu et al. 2004). The genus has commonly been assigned into Rhysipolinae Belokobylskij, 1984 (Scatolini et al. 2002) or Rhysipolini (Whitfield & Wagner 1991), though the relationships with other members of the group were not discussed. Phylogenetic studies including Cantharoctonus are scarce and did not resolve the relationships of this genus (Whitfield 1992; Quicke 1993). In fact, some diagnostic characters for Rhysipolinae, such as the extension of the occipital and hypostomal carina (van Achterberg 1993, 1995), are not present in Cantharoctonus species (Whitfield & van Achterberg 1987), while others are present and resemble species of the genus Rhysipolis Foerster, 1862 (Spencer & Whitfield 1999). In a molecular based study by Zaldivar-Riverón et al. (2006), Rhysipolinae was recovered as a clade, however, Cantharoctonus was not included in their analyses.

Despite the lack of resolution, morphological plus biological data justify the current classification of this genus within the Rhysipolinae, which is represented by two genera in the New World: Rhysipolis and Cantharoctonus. Two New World genera previously placed in Rhysipolinae: Pseudorhysipolis Scatolini & Penteado-Dias, 2002 (Scatolini et al. 2002) and Andesipolis Whitifield & Choi, 2004 (Townsend & Shaw 2009); are supported by phylogenetic works, respectively, as a sister group of Pambolus Halliday, 1836 (Pambolinae), and within Mesostoinae (Zaldivar-Riverón et al. 2006; Sharanovsky et al. 2011). Members of this subfamily are known to be solitary koinobiont ectoparasitoids of concealed Lepidoptera, i.e., leaf-mining and shelter-building caterpillars (Townsend & Shaw 2009). Cantharoctonus host records include two species of leaf-mining Lepidoptera (Lyonetiidae): Bucculatrix pomifoliella Clemens, 1860, and B. canadensisella Chambers, 1875 (Ashmead 1889; Mason 1968).

The distribution range of Cantharoctonus is restricted to North and South American countries, with most occurrence records known from Canada and USA. In South America the occurrence of Cantharoctonus was restrict to Peru (Yu et al. 2005). At least two specimens, deposited in UANL collection, are known from Mexico, though without specific designation (UANL database, accessed in November 2010)

Material and Methods

Identification of specimens was carried out with the keys to subfamily and genera in the manual of New World Braconidae (Wharton et al. 1997). In this publication Hormiinae is treated in a broad sense including several small subfamilies or tribes not related to each other. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify Cantharoctonus reliably with the key to genera of the Hormiinae (Whitfield & Wharton 1997). Wing venation nomenclature follows Wharton et al. (1997).

The only specimen from Cerrado was collected in a Malaise trap at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, DF. All other specimens were obtained in projects undertaken by the two junior authors, one in Atlantic rain forest of the Brazilian coast, and another in Jaraguá State Park, which encompasses an area of the Atlantic mesophytic forest. The specimens from these projects were collected by Moericke (or yellow pan) traps or by sweeping the vegetation. All specimens are deposited in DCBU Collection (Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil) unless otherwise stated.

Colour pictures were taken with a stereomicroscope and treated in automontage software. Grayscale pictures were taken by SEM.


This is the first record of Cantharoctonus from Brazil, expanding its Southern limits of distribution. Specimens sampled at high altitudes and latitudes form a homogeneous group treated as a new species: Cantharoctonus jaragua spec. nov. Three other specimens from lower latitudes and/or altitudes are described as C. braziliensis spec. nov. Two additional specimens were not included in type series. Collection sites of all examined specimens are presented in Table 1. Biology of specimens is unknown.


Table 1. Examined specimens by sample site.

Cantharoctonus jaragua Shimbori & Yamada, spec. nov.

(figs 1, 3-5, 9)

Fig. 1. Cantharoctonus jaragua spec. nov.; habitus, lateral aspect.


Figs 3-5. Cantharoctonus jaragua spec. nov.; figs 6-8, C. braziliensis spec. nov. 3, 6, head, dorsal aspect; 4, mesosoma, lateral aspect; 5, 7, propodeum and first tergite, dorsal aspect.


Fig. 9. Cantharoctonus jaragua spec. nov., fore wing.

Material.— Holotype ♀ (DCBU), “Brazil, SP, São Paulo, Parque Estadual do Jaraguá, 1020 m, 28.vii.2000. Moericke trap (= yellow pan trap), M.V. Yamada”. Paratypes (9 ♀ + 2 ♂): 3 ♀ + 1 ♂, same locality as holotype; 1 ♀ + 1 ♂, 3.xi.1999, sweeping; 1 ♀, 2.xii.1999, sweeping; 1 ♀, 27.vii.2000, Moericke; 1 ♀, 29.vii.2000, Moericke trap; 1 ♀, 1.viii.2000, sweeping; 1 ♀: CEPA Rugendas, São Bento do Sul, SC, Brazil, 15.x.2001, sweeping. A.M. Penteado. Two ♀ in RMNH Collection (Naturalis Biodiversity Center), Leiden, Netherlands with same data as holotype.

Diagnosis.— C. jaragua spec. nov. is similar to C. stramineus. It differs from all known species by its dark colour. Differs from C. stramineus also by the granulate-rugose surface of the first metasomal tergite; the dark patch on the hind coxa, the head uniformly coloured, not darker than the body except for the pronotum.

Holotype female: body length: 2.4 mm.

Head.— In dorsal view subtriangular, 1.3 times wider than mesoscutum; ocellar triangle equilateral, its basal length equal to distance between eye and ocelli; vertex 3.5 times wider than eye and temples 0.6 times height of eye (fig. 3). In lateral view eyes flattened basally, 1.3 times wider than high; malar space large, 0.5 times height of eye; malar suture present. Occipital carina strong, arched in dorsal view and meeting hypostomal carina. Face smooth; clypeus as wide as high, strongly convex. Antenna 1.5 times longer than body; flagellum 24-segmented; all joints at least 3 times longer than wide.

Mesosoma (fig. 4).— Surface of mesosoma mostly smooth. Pronotum granular. Mesoscutum almost circular in outline; notauli well defined and smooth anteriorly, weakly defined posteriorly, meeting in a granulate area in front of scutellar sulcus. Precoxal sulcus smooth and shallow, absent posteriorly; mesosternal sulcus smooth. Metapleuron granulate-rugose. Propodeum with well-defined areola, transverse carina almost reaching lateral carina; surface smooth posteriorly and granulate anteriorly; transverse anterior groove wide, with a median ridge and several weak crenulae (fig. 5). Hind leg with long setae; longest setae of hind femur equal to its width; hind coxa with coarsely granular surface. Fore wing: vein (RS+M)a slightly sinuate; vein (RS+M)b long, same length of vein r; second submarginal cell large, 3RSb about 1.4 times vein 3RSa, 3RSa 1.75 times (3RSb 2.35) vein 2RS; vein 2CUa present but short (fig. 9).

Metasoma.— First metasomal tergite 3 times longer than apical width, apparently parallel-sided, but apical width 1.8 times basal width, with a basal semicircular area; surface granulate-rugose except near second tergite (fig. 5). Second tergite weakly sclerotized baso-laterally. Remainder of metasomal tergites membranous. Ovipositor sheath about half as long as hind basitarsus.

Colour.— Dark brown; pronotum, propleuron, metanotum, legs, mandibles and antenna yellowish; mandible tips brownish; hind coxa with a dark lateral patch; all telotarsi dark brown; wing venation brownish, but costal and anal veins and part of pterostigma whitish.

Variation.— Body length: 2.2-2.7 mm. Flagellum with 23-24 segments. Body/antenna proportion: 1.4-1.5. Head proportions: in dorsal view temple/eye height: 0.6-0.7, vertex/eye width: 2.7-3.5; in lateral view: malar space/eye height: 0.4-0.6. Mesoscutum width/height: 1.1-1.3. Scutellum smooth to very weakly granulate. First metasomal tergites height/apical width: 2.8-3.4; apical/basal width: 1.6-2.0. The anterior part more or less defined anteriorly depending on granulate sculpture. Propodeal transverse groove vary in crenulation. Some paratypes have parts of face, notauli and propodeal transverse groove paler coloured.

Male.— Nearly identical to female; differs only by the slightly larger eyes.

Etymology.— Specific name refers to the first collection site, Jaraguá Peak in the Parque Estadual do Jaraguá.

Cantharoctonus braziliensis Shimbori & Penteado-Dias, spec. nov.

(figs 2, 6-8)

Fig. 2, C. braziliensis spec. nov.; habitus, lateral aspect.

Material.— Holotype ♀ ((DCBU), “Brazil, DF, Brasília, Res. Ecol. IBGE, km 0, BR 251, 26.xi-3.x.1980, Malaise trap”. Paratypes (1 ♀ + 1 ♂): 1 ♀, Mata da Boa Esperança, Ilhéus, BA, Brazil. 19.v.2002. Sweeping. A.M. Penteado & equip.; 1 ♂, Reserva de Sapiranga, Mata de São João, BA, Brazil. 21.vii.2001, sweeping, M.T. Tavares & equip.

Holotype female: body length: 2.1 mm.

Head.— In dorsal view globose; 1.4 times wider than mesoscutum; ocellar triangle equilateral, its base length 1.5 times distance between eye and ocelli; eyes large, shortest distance between eyes about equal to width of eye, temples 0.3 times height of eye (fig. 6). In lateral view eyes nearly circular, flattened ventrally; malar space very short, 0.2 times eye height in frontal view; malar suture present. Occipital carina complete, and meeting hypostomal carina. Face smooth; clypeus as wide as high, very convex (fig. 7). Antenna 1.5 times longer than body; flagellum 25-segmented; all joints at least 4 times longer than wide.

Mesosoma.— Surface of mesosoma mostly smooth. Pronotal collar granulate, remainder of pronotum smooth and shining. Mesoscutum as high as wide; notauli well-defined anteriorly, less developed posteriorly, meeting in a weakly granulate area with a few weak striations just in front of scutellar sulcus. Scutellar sulcus wide, with a single longitudinal carina. Scutellum weakly punctate. Precoxal sulcus smooth and shallow, absent posteriorly; mesosternal sulcus narrow scrobiculate. Metapleuron granulate. Propodeum anteriorly with open areola, medio-longitudinal carina extending from metanotum to posterior area; surface smooth posteriorly and granulate anteriorly; transverse anterior groove wide and crenulate (fig. 8). Hind leg with long setae; longest setae of hind femur equal to its width; hind coxa with coarsely granulate sculpture. Fore wing vein (RS+M)b long, as long as vein r; vein 2RS about equal to 3RSa; vein 3RSb about 1.4 times 3RSa; vein 2CU almost in line with 1CU.

Metasoma.— First metasomal tergite 1.8 times longer than its apical width, apical width 1.7 times basal width; with a basal semicircular area; surface granulate, apico-lateral corners smooth (fig. 8). Second tergite weakly sclerotized basally. Remainder of metasomal tergite membranous. Ovipositor sheath about half as long as hind basitarsus.

Colour.— Yellowish; pronotum, propleuron, coxae, trochanters and trochantelli, labial and maxillary palpi whitish; medio-longitudinal carina of propodeum and first metasomal tergite brown; ocellar triangle in a blackish area; wing venation brownish.

Variation.— Body length 1.8-2.1 mm; first metasomal tergite 1.5-1.8 times longer than its apical width; propodeum and first metasomal tergite more or less darkened.

Male.— Body length: 2.0 mm. Similar to female, but eyes relatively larger.

Diagnosis.— Resembles C. canadensis in colour and head shape but differs by the following: face smooth, first metasomal tergite without a pair of dorsal carinae, areola un-defined anteriorly and body smaller.

Etymology.— Species is named after Brazil because the genus is reported for the first time from Brazil.


For financial support we thank Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). For the SEM pictures we thank Luciana B.R. Fernandes. We are grateful to INCT-Hympar Sudeste for the use of photographic equipment.

Received: 21.xi.2011

Accepted: 19.iii.2012

Edited: C. van Achterberg


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