The Pterophoridae, subfamily Pterophorinae (Tribus: Oidaematophorini and Pterophorini), species of the neotropical fauna are reviewed, and species are redescribed. Many adults are illustrated in colour for the first time, along with line drawings of their genitalia. The examination of type specimens revealed several new synonyms: Pterophorus salticola Meyrick, 1913 is a junior synonym of Hellinsia pelospilus (Zeller, 1877); Oedaematophorus pelodactylus Berg, 1885 and Pterophorus sacrificus Meyrick, 1926 are junior synonyms of Hellinsia surinamensis (Sepp, 1855); Pterophorus chionophanes (Meyrick, 1930) and Oidaematophorus chionoptilia (T.B. Fletcher, 1940) are junior synonyms of Hellinsia argutus (Meyrick, 1926). Lectotypes are designated for: Pterophorus salticola Meyrick, 1913, Pterophorus spermatias Meyrick, 1908, Pterophorus oxyntes Meyrick, 1908, Pterophorus discors Meyrick, 1913, Pterophorus crescens Meyrick, 1926, Mimesoptilus conjunctus Zeller, 1877, Pterophorus glochinias Meyrick, 1908, Pterophorus palmatus Meyrick, 1908, Pterophorus nivalis Meyrick, 1908, Pterophorus delospilus Meyrick, 1921, Pterophorus stadias Meyrick, 1908, Pterophorus malesanus Meyrick, 1921, Pterophorus trachyphloeus Meyrick, 1926, and Pterophorus suspiciosus Meyrick, 1921. This study resulted in the recognition of 31 new species: Hellinsia paccha, H. puruha, H. orellanai, H. sucrei, H. canari, H. pallens, H. cajanuma, H. cuculla, H. caras, H. pizarroi, H. ruminahuii, H. magnus, H. quitus, H. postnigrata, H. huayna, H. benalcazari, H. papallacta, H. shyri, H. tupaci, H. aguilerai, H. alfaroi, H. angela, H. lumbaquia, H. maldonadoica, H. milleri, H. montufari, H. morenoi, H. pichincha, Oidaematophorus pseudotrachyphloeus, Adaina atahualpa, and Chocophorus mayaensis. In the genus Hellinsia the species are arranged in groups, predominantly based on the male genital structure. A comprehensive checklist of the species included.